Volume 3. No 1

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN KINETICS, HEALTH AND EDUCATION (IJoHKHE)

 

EDITORIAL BOARDS

 


Editor-in-Chief

Professor Joshua E. Umeifekwem

Head, Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Managing Editor

Prof. O.C. Ene

Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Associate Editor

Dr. Evelyn N. Nwagu

Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Editors

Tr. Professor E.S. Samuel

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Dr. G.C.Nji

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Dr. Golda O. Ekenedo

University of Port-Harcourt

 

Dr. C.C. Igbokwe

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Dr. D.O. Dike

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Dr. D.U. Chukwudo

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Dr. D.I. Ugwu

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Dr. C.N. Ogbuji

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Dr. F.C. Ugwueze

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Dr. A.N. Odo

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

 

 

 

Consulting Editors

 

Professor A.I. Njodi

Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Maiduguiri, Bornu State

 

Professor A.O. Abass

Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Universityof Ibadan, Ibadan

 

Professor Ignatius Onyewadume

University of Botswana, Garborone

 

Professor O.A. Umeakuka

Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Professor Stephen S. Hamafyelto

Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Maiduguiri, Bornu State

 

Professor C. E. Ezedum

Madonna University, Okija

Anambra State

 

Professor Maria Ikorok

Department of Physical and Health Education

University of Uyo, AkwaIbom State.

 

Professor Musa GarbaYakasai

Department of Physical and Health Education,

Bayero University Kano, Nigeria.

 

Professor Ernest I. Achalu

Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Port Harcourt

 

Professor Charles O. Ogu

Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                  GUIDELINES TO AUTHORS      

 

The INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN KINETICS, HEALTH AND EDUCATION (IJoHKHE) is a double-blind and peer-reviewed Journal publication by the foremost Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka and publishes original research, applied, and educational articles in all areas of Human Kinetics, Health and Education. We also welcome healthcare professionals, experts in practical and scientific fields, as well as academics, researchers and scholars to submit their work. We publish Two times a year (June and December). Our publications are both in hardcopy and online platforms. We receive submissions all through the year.

 

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Professor Joshua E. Umeifekwem

Editor-in-Chief

IJoHKHE

 

CONTENT

 

1. LawretaIjeomaAbugu

&E. S. Samuel

 

Attitude to Antenatal Exercise Among Pregnant Women in Enugu State

 

1
2. Nkemdilim Patricia Anazonwu,

Ngwu Christopher Ndubuisi

&Obasi-IgweInyomoma

 

Socio-Demographic Predictors of Exclusive Breastfeeding Practice in Nsukka Urban Area of Enugu State

 

 

9

3. OziomaAnyanwu, Effective Osteoporosis Prevention in Nigeria: Implications for Health Education

 

18
4. Rita NgoziEzema, C.C. Igbokwe, &E.S Samuel Knowledge of Screening for Breast Cancer Among Female

Secondary School Teachers in Nsukka Local Government Area.

 

25
5. Efiong S. Samuel &James T. Ihongo,

 

Influence of Birth Control on Reproductive Health problems among Students in the Colleges of Health Technology in North West Senatorial District of Benue State. 37
6. Kate EmieneInalegwu, Olajide Ezekiel Ajani, &CyliaN.Iweama, Provision of Maternal and Child Health Care Services to Women of Child-Bearing Age in Benue State

 

42
7. Agu, MichealAnene&Ngwu, DorathyChinwe

 

Knowledge of National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) by Federal Civil Servants (FCSS) in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC) Federal Capital Territory (FCT)

 

48
8. Eunice Nguungwan Seer-Uke & E.S. Samuel

 

Difference in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder of Internally Displaced Persons of Fulani Herdsmen Attack and Flood Victims in Benue State 55
9. Seun N. Akorede, Ajara A. Abdulfatah, Oluwatobi D. Nofiu& John O. Alapa Assessment of Commonly Abused Substances Among Youths in Secondary School of Sagamu Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria

 

61
10 Nkiru Edith Obande-Ogbuinya& Lois Nnenna Amari-Omaka Assessment Of The Female Secondary Students’ Attitude Towards Information On Personal Sexuality Skills In Ebonyi State Of Nigeria

 

68
11 Osmond C. Ene& Raphael E. Ochiaka Extent Of Substance Abuse Among Secondary School Students In Nsukka Local Government Area, Enugu State

 

76

 


Attitude to Antenatal Exercise among Pregnant Women in Enugu State

 

LawretaIjeoma Abugu1*& E. S. Samuel2

1,2 Department of Human Kinetics and Health EducationUniversity of Nigeria, Nsukka

*Corresponding Author: ijeoma.abugu@unn.edu.ng

 

Abstract

A cross sectional descriptive survey was conducted to determine the attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercise in Enugu state, Nigeria. The study population consisted of all pregnant women that attended antenatal care services in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu state from January to August 2016. Two stage sampling procedure employing simple random and purposive sampling were used to select 204 pregnant women used for the study. Researchers structured and validated questionnaire Attitude to Antenatal Exercise Questionnaire (AAEQ) was the instrument for data collection. Frequencies and percentages were used to answer the research questions while chi-square statistics was used to test the null hypotheses at .05 level of significance.Results of the study indicated that majority of pregnant women (77.2%) had positive attitude to antenatal exercise. No significant difference existed in their attitude based on age (χ2=10.749, p = .105) while significant differences existed in their attitudes based on level of education (χ2=42.702, P= .001), parity (χ2=15.249, P = .040) and occupation (χ2=25.585, p= .038).  The authors recommended that antenatal exercise classes should be conducted for all childbearing mothers irrespective of their parity, occupation or educational level so as to increase their knowledge and influence their attitudes for better practice of antenatal exercise.

 

Key words: Attitude, antenatal exercise, pregnant women

 

Introduction

Exercise is a fundamental component of antenatal care. However, women’s physical activity lessens as the perception of risk in pregnancy is high (Motolla&Mclaughlin, 2011). According to Down, Chasan-Taber, Evenson, Leiferman& Yeo, (2012), lifestyle intervention targeting physical activity have the potential to prevent gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia and excessive gestational weight gain in pregnant women. The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group Consensus Panel (2010) reported that it is estimated that 18 percent of all pregnant women will be diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Excessive gestational weight gain is a risk factor for GDM while pre-eclampsia is one of the hypertensive disorders that women with GDM can develop. In light of the increasing prevalence of these disorders, and their relationship to increasing obesity rates, the need to identify strategies that might prevent their onset as well as their short and long-term sequel for the mother and the offspring becomes critical (Evenson & Wen, 2010).

Antenatal exercises are those activities that are performed by pregnant women to improve their strength and fitness. During pregnancy, there are several changes in the pregnant women’s body due to effects of hormones of pregnancy. Increased progesterone and relaxin (hormones of pregnancy) during pregnancy reduce support and increased mobility in structures to which muscles and tendons are attached. Examples include softening of the cervix, mobility of the symphysis pubis, relaxation of the joints of the pelvis and lower back especially the sacroiliac joints (Ribeiro &Milanez, 2011, Dignon& Reddington, 2013). Other changes occur in different organs of the body causing some discomfort in the pregnant women. Some of the minor discomforts in pregnancy include; low back pain, loss of balance, weakness of the pelvic floor muscles, urinary incontinences, sciatica among others. These discomforts can be relieved through appropriate antenatal exercises.

The American Congress of Obstetrician and Gynaecologists (2015) recommended that pregnant women can exercise moderately for 30 minutes on most days of the week. This report further stated that most distinct changes in pregnancy are increased weight gain, and a shift in the centre of gravity that results in lordosis. Strengthening of the abdominal and back muscles could minimize the risk of the shift in the centre of gravity and other discomforts associated with this shift.

Some of the exercises recommendations during pregnancy include; breathing exercise, aerobics, pelvic floor exercise, brisk walking, and indoor stationary cycling among others (Nkhata, NkaduSchula&Mweshi, 2016). However, pregnant mothers should consult with their health care providers before engaging in some of these exercises. Breathing exercise ensures a steady intake of oxygen as well as prepares the woman for the need to maintain uniform and rhythmic breathing during labour.  Pelvic floor exercise reduces the possibility of urinary incontinence or difficulty with postpartum urination and helps prevent the prolapse of the uterus (Down et. al., 2012). Another importance of the pelvic floor exercise is their active contraction to enhance enjoyment during coital activity and reflex contraction during orgasm (Evenson & Wen, 2010). Aerobics such as brisk walking and cycling improves cardiovascular fitness and endurance (Ribeiro &Milanez, 2011). The effects of these exercises on the foetus are also enormous.

Contrary to belief that exercise increase risks associated with pregnancy, Evenson and Wen (2010) asserted that these beliefs have not been proved scientifically and that not only is exercise during pregnancy safe but it is beneficial for both the mother and for the baby. According to Nkhata, Nkandu and Schula (2015), babies born from exercising women seem calmer, more intelligent with improve neurological and mental development and adapt faster to the outside. These benefits from exercise notwithstanding, pregnant women in the study area seem not to be engaging in most of these exercises. Abugu, Abah, Ekong, Echezona, Ugwu and Ejeh (2016) reported that low proportion (pelvic floor exercise – 27.8%, static cycling-19.7%, swimming – 9.2%) of pregnant women in Enugu State engaged in some of these exercises during pregnancy. This could be as a result of their beliefs and attitudes towards antenatal exercise.

Attitude is disposition or state of mind. Attitude to antenatal exercise, therefore means the pregnant women’s disposition towards antenatal exercise. This disposition can be favourable or unfavourable, positive or negative. Attitude influences behavioural change. Behavioural change is difficult in individuals who have the appropriate knowledge and skills to perform the behaviour but are still unable to do so due to competing barriers (Duncombe,Wertherm, Skouteris& Kelly, 2007). Studies suggest that perceived barriers which can affect attitude to antenatal exercise include physical discomfort from nausea, fatigue, beliefs such as embarrassment about appearances, uncertainty about how to exercise safely during pregnancy, concern about injury, lack of or incorrect information from healthcare providers, lack of care due to child care commitments (Evenson, Moos, Carnet,& Siena-Rizl, 2008; Vladutiu, Evenson& Marshall, 2010; LeifermannSwibas, Marshall, & Dunn, 2011). Other factors that affect attitude to antenatal exercise could be number of children, mothers’ occupation, age and educational level. These later factors will be investigated in this study.

Enugu State is one of the 36 states in Nigeria located in the south east region of the country. The only reported exercise practice in the area was brisk walking – 52.5 per cent (Abugu et., al, 2016). According to Sujindra, Bupathy and Pravena (2015), attitudes towards antenatal exercise during pregnancy have changed dramatically over the past two decades. It is unclear whether same can be said of pregnant women in Enugu State because of the scarce literature on the subject matter. This then necessitates the need to study attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercise in Enugu State. Findings from the study will be beneficial to pregnant women, health care providers, policy makers, health educators and the general public. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to find out the attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercise in Enugu State. Specifically, the study investigated the attitude of pregnant woman towards antenatal exercises according to age, educational level parity and occupation. The study also hypothesised that there was no significant difference in the attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercise based on age, level of education, parity and occupation.

 

Method

The study adopted cross sectional survey research design. Population for the study consisted of all the 2,008 pregnant mothers registered and attending antenatal clinic in the 16 health facilities that offer antenatal care services in Nsukka LGA from January to August 2016 (Office of the Monitoring and Evaluation Unit, Health Department Nsukka LGA). There are 50 health care facilities in the three development centres in Nsukka LGA out of which 16 offer antenatal care services. A sample size of 204 respondents was chosen, representing approximately 10 per cent of the population. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to arrive at the sample. First stage involved drawing six health facilities (two from each development centre) from the existing 16 health facilities that offer antenatal care services using simple random sampling of balloting without replacement while second stage involved the use of purposive sampling technique on antenatal clinic days to select 34 pregnant women each from the six sampled health facilities. This procedure produced 204 pregnant mothers for the study.

A researchers’ structured questionnaire termed Attitude to Antenatal Exercise Questionnaire (AAEQ) was used for data collection. The instrument comprised two sections. Section A solicited information on personal data of the respondents’ age, educational level, parity and occupation while section B sought information on attitude to antenatal exercise. The instrument was a four-point scale of strongly agree, agree, disagree and strongly disagree. Face validity of the instrument was established by three experts in Health Education, University of Nigeria Nsukka.  The AAEQ was administered to 20 women that attended antenatal care clinic in District Hospital Enugu Ezike after which split half was used to determine reliability of the instrument. Spearman Brown correlation coefficient was utilized to determine reliability coefficient which yielded .71. Data were collected by the researchers and research assistants during antenatal clinic days at the sampled health facilities. Informed consent was obtained verbally from the respondents prior to administration of the instrument. Completed copies of the instruments were collected on the spot after completion to ensure maximum return rate. Out of 204 copies distributed and retrieved, 194 were properly filled and used for data analysis. The data were coded and analyzed using IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. In determining the attitude of respondents, strongly agree and agree were collapsed to represent agree while disagree and strongly disagree were collapsed to represent disagree. A response of agree to positive statement was interpreted as positive attitude while disagree was interpreted as negative attitude. The reverse was the case for negative statement. Afterwards, frequency and percentage were used to answer research questions. Chi-square statistic was used to test the null hypotheses at .05 level of significance and appropriate degree of freedom.

 

Results

 

Table 1

Demographic Characteristics of Respondents (n = 194)

 

Characteristics F %
Age
Less than 30 years 90 46.4
30years and above 104 53.6
Level of education
No formal education (NFE) 10 5.2
Primary education (PE) 28 14.4
Secondary education (SE) 66 34.0
Tertiary education (TE) 90 46.4
Parity
One pregnancy 50 25.8
Two to four pregnancies 114 58.8
Five and above pregnancies 30 15.5
Occupation
House wife 59 30.4
Civil servant 49 25.3
Self employed 56 28.9
Schooling 30 15.5

 

Table 1 shows the demographic characteristics of respondents. More than half of the respondents were aged 30 years and above (53.6%), most had tertiary education (46.4%), two to four pregnancies (58.6%) and were housewives (30.4%).

 

 

Table 2

Attitude of Pregnant Women towards Antenatal Exercise (n = 194)

 

 

 

*significant at p< .05

 

Table 3

Attitude of Pregnant Women to Antenatal Exercise Based on Age (n = 194, df=3)

 

                                                                                                                        Response
S/N Statements Agree Disagree Decision
    F % F %  
1 Exercise during pregnancy is necessary 184 94.8 10 5.2  
2 Exercise during pregnancy facilitates normal delivery 164 84.6 30 15.4  
3 I feel like exercising during pregnancy 132 68.0 62 31.9  
4 Exercise during pregnancy should be encouraged 118 60.9 76 39.2  
5 Exercise during pregnancy facilitates rapid postnatal recovery 170 77.6 24 12.3  
  Overall attitude (%)   77.2   22.8 Positive

 

 

Table 2 above shows that majority of pregnant women (77.2%) in Enugu state has positive attitude towards antenatal exercise.

 

 

                                                                                                                                     Age    
S/N Statements < 30 (n=90) ≥ 30 (n=104) χ2val P val
    F % F %    
1 Exercise during pregnancy is necessary 86 95.5 98 94.2 5.521 .137
2 Exercise during pregnancy facilitates normal delivery 78 86.6 86 82.7 4.634 .201
3 I feel like exercising during pregnancy 66 73.3 66 63.4 4.852 .183
4 Exercise during pregnancy should be encouraged 52 57.8 66 63.5 12.299 .006*
5 Exercise during pregnancy facilitates rapid postnatal recovery 70 77.8 100 96.2 26.443 .000*
  Overall attitude (%)   78.2   80.0 10.749 .105

Table 3 above shows that 80.0 per cent of pregnant women aged 30 years and above and 78.2 per cent of those aged less than 30 years demonstrated positive attitude towards antenatal exercise. However, the table shows an overall chi-square of 10.749 with a corresponding p-value of .105 which is greater than .05 at 3 degrees of freedom. Therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference in the attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercise is not rejected. This implies that attitude of pregnant women was the same among those aged below 30 years and those 30 years and above.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4

Attitude of pregnant women towards Antenatal Exercise based on Level of Education (n = 194, df=9)

                                                                                                  Level of Education
S/N Statements NFE

(n=10)

PE

 (n=28)

SE

(n=66)

TE

(n=90)

χ2val P. val
    f % F % F % F %    
1 Exercise during pregnancy is necessary 10 100 28 100 62 94.0 84 93.3 26.507 .002*
2 Exercise during pregnancy facilitates normal delivery 10 100 24 85.8 46 69.7 84 93.4 50.993 .000*
3 I feel like exercising during pregnancy 10 100 12 42.9 42 63.6 68 75.5 42.328 .000*
4 Exercise during pregnancy should be encouraged 10 100 8 28.6 42 63.6 58 64.5 69.765 .000*
5 Exercise during pregnancy facilitates rapid postnatal recovery 10 100 20 71.4 62 94.0 78 86.6 23.917 .004*
  Overall attitude (%)   100   65.74   76.9   82.6 42.702 .001*

 

Key: NFE=Non-formal education, PE=Primary education, SE=Secondary education, TE=Tertiary Education. *significant at p< .05

 

Table 4 reveals that 100 per cent of pregnant women with no formal education, 82.6 per cent with tertiary, 76.9 with secondary and 65.7 per cent with primary demonstrated positive attitude towards antenatal exercise. On the test of hypotheses, the table shows an overall chi square of 42.702 with a corresponding p-value of .001 which is less than .05 level of significance. The null hypothesis is rejected. This implies that the attitude of pregnant women differed according to their level of education.

 

Table5

Attitude of Pregnant Women to Antenatal Exercise based on Parity(n= 194, df=6)

                                                                                                    Parity  
S/N Statements one delivery (n=50) 2-4 deliveries (n=114)  

≥ 5 (n=30)

 

χ2 value

 

P. value

    F % F % F %    
1 Exercise during pregnancy is necessary 48 96.0 106 93.0 30 100 20.306 .002*
2 Exercise during pregnancy facilitates normal delivery 46 92.0 88 77.2 30 100 15.870 .014*
3 I feel like exercising during pregnancy 36 72.0 76 66.7 20 66.6 9.643 .141
4 Exercise during pregnancy should be encouraged 30 60.0 74 64.9 14 46.7 13.567 .035*
5 Exercise during pregnancy facilitates rapid postnatal recovery 38 76.0 102 89.4 30 100 16.859 .010*
  Overall attitude (%)   79.2   78.2   82.7 15.249 .040*

 

*significant at p< .05

 

The above table reveals the differences in attitude based on parity. From the table, 82.7 per cent of pregnant women with five and above deliveries, 79.2 per cent of those with one delivery and 78.2 per cent of those with two to four deliveries demonstrated positive attitude towards antenatal exercise.  However, test of hypotheses shows an overall chi square of 15.249 with a corresponding p-value of .040 less than .05 level of significance. The null hypothesis of no significance difference is rejected implying that attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercise differed according to parity.

 

 

 

 

Table 6

Attitude of Pregnant Women to Antenatal Exercise based on Occupation (n=194, df=9)

 

                                                                                               Occupation
S/N Statements House wife

(n=59)

Civil servant

 (n=49)

Self employed

(n=56)

 

Schooling

(n=30)

 

χ2val

 

P. val

    F % F % F % F %    
1 Exercise during pregnancy is necessary 54 91.5 48 98 52 92.9 30 100 20.933 .013*
2 Exercise during pregnancy facilitates normal delivery 51 86.4 39 79.6 48 85.8 26 86.7 12.767 .174
3 I feel like exercising during pregnancy 32 54.3 26 53.1 48 85.7 26 86.7 31.363 .000*
4 Exercise during pregnancy should be encouraged 30 50.9 27 55.1 39 69.7 24 73.3 25.982 .002*
5 Exercise during pregnancy facilitates rapid postnatal recovery 42 74.6 47 95.9 51 91.1 28 93.4 36.878 .000*
  Overall attitude (%)   71.5   76.3   85.04   88.02 25.5846 .038*

*significant at p< .05

 

In Table 6 above, 88.02 per cent of pregnant women who are schooling, 85.04 of those who are self-employed, 76.3 per cent of those who are civil servant and 71.5 per cent of those who are house wife demonstrated positive attitude towards antenatal exercise. On the test of hypotheses, the table shows an overall chi square of 25.585 with a corresponding p-value of .038 less than .05 level of significance implying that attitude differed according to occupation.

 

Discussion

The findings from our study showed that more than half of the study participants (53.6) were aged 30 years and above while most (46.4%) had tertiary education as their highest level of education. More than half of the participants (58.8%) have between two to four pregnancies and 30.4 percent were mostly housewives. This demographic distribution is in contrast with the study by Sujindra, Bupathy, Sugenya and Preveena, (2015) where 63 percent of the mothers have undergone only primary education and 74 percent of them were home makers. In this study, only 46.4 per cent had undergone tertiary education. However, similar demographic distribution with the present study is seen in a study by Mbada et. al, (2014) where 70 percent were employed and had undergone tertiary education and also a study by Nkhata et. al, (2015) where most had maximum of three pregnancies (41%) as in the present study.

Table 2 reveals that most of the pregnant women studied had positive attitude to antenatal exercise (77.2%). The finding is not surprising owing to the general understanding on the importance of exercise to health. This finding is consistent with the finding of Mbada et. al., (2014) where majority of the study samples reported positive paradigm shift in attitudes towards exercise during pregnancy. It is also consistent with studies done in other parts of the globe (Put, Chuang & Chan, 2015 and Sujindra et. al., 2015).

However, the problem is that the positive attitude shown in this study might not be translated to effective exercise practices.  Abugu et, al., (2016) reported that less than half of the study participants practiced most of the exercises studied in Enugu state. Put, Chuang and Chan (2015) reported in their study that although Chinese pregnant women had favourable attitude towards antenatal exercise, few exercised in reality. The main reason for reduced exercise in the above study was fatigue and concern about foetal growth. This finding necessitates the need for constant health education on the benefits of exercise in pregnancy so as to translate this positive attitude revealed in the study to practice and improve feto- maternal condition.

The findings in table 3 revealed that slightly higher proportion of pregnant women aged 30 years and above (80%) had more positive attitude than those less than 30 years, (78.2%). However, this slight difference is not significant (χ2 = 10.799, P =.105 < .05). This finding is in contrast with the finding by Mbada et. al., (2014) in which pregnant women less than 30 years reported more favourable attitude (59.4%) than those aged 30 years and above (40.6%).  Also, the difference in Mbada was significant at .05 level of significance. This contradiction in the two findings could be attributed to the difference in geopolitical zones of the country where the studies were carried out.

In table 4, 100 per cent of pregnant women with no formal education and 82.6 per cent of those with tertiary, 76.9 with secondary and 65.7 with primary education showed positive attitude to antenatal exercise. There is significant difference in their attitude based on educational level. This finding is not surprising because educational level of women is capable of increasing their experiences thereby influencing their attitude. The finding is in contrast with that of Sujindra et. al., (2015) who found no significant difference in the attitude of mothers based on educational level in their study in India. This difference could be attributed to different settings where the two studies were conducted.

Table 5 shows attitude based on parity. From the table, 82.7 per cent of multiparous women with five and above number of deliveries, 79.2 per cent of those with one delivery and 78.2 per cent of those with two to four deliveries demonstrated positive attitude towards antenatal exercise.  This finding could be attributed to increased experience in pregnancy related issues among multiparous women than nuliparous or primiparous women. Mbada et al (2014) reported equally higher attitude among multiparous women than other women. However, the difference in this study was significant (p = .040) unlike that of Mbada that reported no significance difference (p = .275) based on parity.

Table 6 shows that higher proportion of pregnant women who are schooling (88.02%) and self-employed (85.84%) demonstrated positive attitude than civil servants (76.3%) and housewives (71.5%). This difference was significant (p = .038). This finding is consistent with the finding of Mbada et. al., (2014), and at variance with that of Put, Chuang and Chan, (2015). This could have resulted from similarities and differences of those studies with the present one.

 

Conclusion

The present study investigated the attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercise in Enugu state. Antenatal exercise was described to be very necessary in the health of pregnant women and their foetus. The present study revealed that majority of pregnant women had positive attitude to antenatal exercise. No significant difference existed in the attitude based on age while significant differences existed in attitudes based on level of education, parity and occupation.

 

Recommendations

  1. There should be regular health education classes during antenatal sessions on the importance, benefits and contraindication to antenatal exercise for pregnant women by health educators and other health care workers in the antenatal clinics.
  2. Exercise classes for instance pelvic floor exercise, breathing exercise, aerobics and indoor stationary cycling should be conducted for all childbearing women irrespective of parity, occupation or level of education. This is to improve their knowledge and influence their attitude towards antenatal exercise.
  3. This study is an eye opener on what the attitude of pregnant women on antenatal exercise in the study area could be. Due to the benefits accruing from exercise in pregnancy, it is important to explore further on the perceived barriers to antenatal exercise among this group of people so as to propose possible solution that will lead to appropriate behaviour change which is the main aim of health education.

 

 

 

References

Abugu, L. I., Abbah, O. I., Ekong, I. E., Echezona, B., Ugwu. S. U., &Ejeh, V. J. (2016). Physical Activity Practices among Pregnant Women in a Health District in Enugu state. International Journal of Scientific Innovation and Sustainable Development 6(1),196-204.

Dignon, A. &Reddingnon, A. (2013). The physical effect of exercise in pregnancy on pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, birth weight and type of delivery. Evidence Based Midwifery. Retrieved from https://www.rcm.org.uk/learning-and-career/learning-and-research/ebm-articles/the-physical-effect-of-exercise-in-pregnancy

Down, S. D., Chasan-Taber, L., Evenson K. R., Leiferman, J., & Yeo, S. (2012). Physical Activity and Pregnancy: Past and Present Evidence and Future Recommendations. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sports, 83(4) 485-502.

Duncombe, D., Wertheim, E. H., Skouteris, H., Paxton, S. J., Kelly, L. (2007). Factors related to exercise over the course of pregnancy including women’s beliefs about the safety of exercise during pregnancy.Midwifery.25:430–438.doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2007.03.002.

Evenson, K. R. & Wen, E. (2010). National trends in self-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour among pregnant women NHANES 1999-2006. Preventive Medicine. 50, 123-128.

Evenson, K. R., Moos, M. K., Carnet, K., &Siena-Riz, A. M. (2008). Perceived Barriers to Physical Activities among Pregnant Women. Maternal and Child Health Journal 13, 364-365.

International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group Consensus Panel (2010). International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy. Diabetes care, 33 676-682.

Leiffermann, J. A., Swibas, T., Koiness, K., Marshal, J. A., & Dunn, A. L. (2011). My baby my move. Examination of perceived barriers and motivating factors related to antenatal physical activity. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health,56,33-40.

Mbada, C. E., Adeboye, O. E., Adeyemi, A. B., Arije, O. O., Dada, O. O., Akinwande, O. A., Awotidebo,T. O., &Alonge, I. A. (2014). Knowledge and attitude of Nigerian pregnant women towards antenatal exercise: a cross sectional survey. Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/260539

Mottola, M. F., & McLaughlin, R. (2011). Exercise and Pregnancy: Canadian guidelines for health care professionals. Wellspring,22(4), A1-A4.

Nkhata, L. A., Nkandu, E. M., Shula, H. K., &Mweshi, M. M. (2016). Attitude to exercise in pregnant women attending antenatal care at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. Journal of Preventive and Rehabilitative Medicine,1(1): 22-26.

Put, W., Chuang, S., & Chan, L.(2015). Physical Activity in Pregnancy: Attitudes and Practice of Hong Kong Chinese Women. Hong Kong Journal of Gyneacology, Obstetrics & Midwifery, 15 (2), 138-147.

Ribeiro, C. P., &Milanez, H. (2011). Knowledge, attitude and practice of women in Campinas, S’ao Paulo, Brazil with respect to physical exercise in pregnancy: A descriptive survey. Reproductive Health, 8 (1), 1-7.

Sujindra, E., Bupathy, A., Suganya, A. &Praveena, P. (2015). Knowledge, attitude and practice of exercise during pregnancy among antenatal mothers. International Journal of Education & Psychological Researches,1(3), 234-237. Retrieved from

http://www.ijeprjournal.org/text.asp/2015/1/3/234/158347

Symons, D., Downs, &Hausenblas, H. A. (2004). Women’s exercise beliefs and behaviors during their pregnancy and postpartum. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health,49(2), pp. 138–144.

The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Women Health Care Physicians (2015). Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Post-Partum Period. Committee Opinion Number 650. Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 126.

Vladutiu, C. J., Evenson, K. R., & Marshal, S. W. (2010). Physical activity and injuries during pregnancy. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 7, 761-769.

 

 

Socio-Demographic Predictors of Exclusive Breastfeeding Practice in Nsukka Urban Area of Enugu State

 

Nkemdilim Patricia Anazonwu1*, Ngwu Christopher Ndubuisi2,Obasi-Igwe Inyomoma3

1,2,3 Department of Social Work, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

*Corresponding Author:nkemdilim.anazonwu@unn.edu.ng

 

Abstract

Exclusive breastfeeding is the most efficient type of infant feeding for the first six months of life. It protects infants from infectious diseases. This study examined socio-demographic predictors of exclusive breastfeeding practice among childbearing mothers in Nsukka urban area of Enugu State. The instrument for data collection was researchers designed and validated questionnaire. Direct approach was used to administer the questionnaire. The researcher with the aid of three research assistants administered and collected data from the respondents. The population for the study consisted of 8,458 of childbearing mothers in Nsukka urban area of Enugu State, out of which 592 were sampled using Cochran formula. All the data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) while frequency distribution tables and percentages were used to present the results. Chi-square (χ²) was used to test the hypotheses; and binary logistic regression was used to predict the effect of independent variables on a dependent variable. The result showed that there is statistically significant relationship between marital status (χ2 =40.151, P=.021) and education (χ2 =6.360, P=.007)and practice of EBF. Results from regression analysis showed that religion, education and parity were the best predictors of EBF practice. The findings further revealed that majority (60.1%) of the respondents attested that they did not practice EBF due to work pressure, lack of family and social among others. As such, government, organizations, health care providers and social workers should rise to their separate responsibilities in enlightening the mothers and the entire public about the risk of complementary feeding and importance of EBF, and consequently equip them with the better ways of managing the practice. This would definitely help to curtail the diseases and incidence of loss of infants and children as a result of not practicing EBF.

 

Keywords: Exclusive Breastfeeding, Socio-Demographic, Predictors, Practice, Childbearing Mothers

 

Introduction

 

Exclusive breastfeeding is a pattern of feeding an infant with no other food or drink, not even water except breast milk for six months of life. EBF is the best feeding for infants for the first six months which has multiple advantages not just to infants and mothers, but for the larger community and society as well. For instance, EBF is the most preventive intervention to reduce early-childhood mortality and morbidity (Ike, 2013). It saves the infants from life intimidating gastro-intestinal diseases such as necrotizing entercolitis (NEC), lessens the occurrence of otitis media, several bacterial infections such as meningitis, bacteremia, lower respiratory infections and botulism (Oddy, Jianghong, Monique & Andrew, 2011). In other words, EBF reduces common childhood illnesses such as diarrhoea and pneumonia and helps for a quicker recovering during illness (Kramer & Kakuma, 2012). EBF helps in child spacing, reduces the risk of ovarian, breast cancer and type 2 diabetes in mothers, (World Health Organization, WHO, 2012).

To enable mothers to establish, sustain and derive from the benefits exclusive breastfeeding gives for six months, WHO and UNICEF recommend: Initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of birth; exclusive breastfeeding- that is the infant receives only breast milk without any additional food or drink not even water for six months; mother and baby should sleep together on the same bed; breastfeeding on demand- that is as often as the child wants day and night; no use of bottles, teats or pacifiers for feeding the baby (Danso, 2014 & WHO, 2011). In addition to these, there are new initiative programmes to protect, promote and support EBF which include the International Code of Marketing Breast Milk Substitutes (ICMBMS) (WHO, 2016). This means a set of recommendations to regulate the marketing of breast milk substitutes such as infant formula to ensure that mothers are not discouraged from breastfeeding. The code aims to contribute to provision of safe and adequate nutrition for infants, by the protection and promotion of breastfeeding and by ensuring the proper use of breast milk substitutes when necessary. Also, Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was another initiative which has to do with a global effort which aims to improve EBF rates and ensure that evidenced-based best practice standards of care are offered by maternity services (WHO, 2016). Through these programmes, mothers can obtain information about the practice and benefits of EBF when they attend antenatal clinic and following hospital delivery services (UNICEF, 2014).

Despite obvious awareness of EBF, benefits and initiative programmes to improve EBF practice, adoption of EBF has not been fully accepted as evidenced in National Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) (Alade, Titiloye, Oshiname&Arulogun, 2013). In Nigeria, breastfeeding is well achieved and different breastfeeding promotion activities have been put in place. Sanusi, Leshi and Agada (2016) asserted that breastfeeding of infants is widely accepted by mothers and its initiation is on the increase at health facilities after delivery, but the sustained practice of EBF for six months once the mother returns home is distinctly lagging. As it was reported by World Breastfeeding Week Report (2017), only 37% of Nigeria women breastfeed and of these, only 25% do so exclusively. Studies have shown that low EBF rates have been reported in many countries throughout the world. Dudu, Okoro and Otto (2016) reported that the rate of EBF in Nigeria has remained the lowest (17%) following other African countries such as Cameroon (23.5%), Republic of Benin (43.1%) and Ghana (53.4%), which was as a result of several factors and predictors such as traditional beliefs, practices, rites, early introduction of complementary feeding and so on.

The introduction of complementary feed such as cereal pap (Akamu, Ogi or Kwunu) made from maize or zea mays, guinea corn (sorghum), millet, soya beans among others, based on erroneous assumption are likely to affect EBF initiation and sustainability. For instance, Ike (2013) reported that intense promotion of commercial milk formulae is the reason for decline in EBF practice among mothers. To buttress this point, Ani, Ezekekwu, Njeze and Nnorom (2011) reported that the economic burden on families and community have substantially increased with the use of bottle feeding as a result to high cost of formulae feed in the market. Also, the authors reported that there was lack of awareness of some major recommended practices in the hospitals that will promote and sustain EBF practice among mothers.

According to report from National Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) (2013), indicators of EBF practice include age, residence, zone, mother’s education and wealth quintile. This assertion was supported by the observation made by Nwagu (2016) that childbearing mothers of the age 22 and below were the highest participants among which only 20 percent practiced EBF. Other factors such as marital status, job condition, poor knowledge of EBF among health and social workers still hinder the initiation and sustainability of EBF. Consequently, this has led to increase rate of infant mortality and morbidity due to high occurrence of gastroenteritis, common childhood diseases such as pneumonia, diarrhoea and so on. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine the socio-demographic predictors of exclusive breastfeeding practice among childbearing mothers in Nsukka urban area.

 

Research questions.

  1. Do childbearing mothers in Nsukka urban practice EBF for the recommended duration?
  2. What are childbearing mother’s reasons for not adopting EBF in Nsukka urban?
  3. What other complementary food were adopted by childbearing mothers in Nsukka urban?

 

Hypothesis.

  1. There is no significant relationship between mother’s age, marital status, religion, occupation, education, income, parity, gender and practice of EBF

 

Method

            Cross-sectional survey research design was used for the study. Nsukka urban area of Enugu State was the area of the study. Nsukka urban is made up of the three prominent communities namely; Ihen’Owerre, Nkpunanor and Nru (Aderian, 2014). The population for the study consisted of 8,458 of childbearing mothers in Nsukka urban area of Enugu State within the age range of 15 to 49 years which is in line with (WHO, 2006) stipulated age for child bearing mothers were selected. 592 childbearing mothers were drawn as sample size using Cochran (1963) formula.

Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select respondents for the study. Stage one involved purposive selection of one community from each of three communities that makes up Nsukka urban. That is Amaukwaegu and Amaeze from Ihen’Owerre; Amaokwe and Amaeze-Ani from Nkpunanor and Amaolu and Umugworie from Nru. Stage two involved the selection of two smaller communities (Amaukwaegu and Amaeze from Ihe n’ Owerre; Amaokwe and Amaeze from Nkpunanor; Amaolu and Umugworie from Nru). Stage three was selection of four streets (Ibeziako and Amobi streets from Amaukwaegu; Oloto 1&2 and Odobido streets from Amaeze all in Ihen’Owerre. Amaokwe lane and Onuomozo street from Amaokwe; EmenikeUgwuanyi Street, New Anglican and Tectonics Roads from Amaeze-Ani, all in Echara. Amalu and Umugworie from Umuoyo. Also, 50 respondents were allocated using quota sampling to each of the streets. Systematic sampling was used in selecting compound and dwelling unit.

Researchers designed questionnaire was the major instrument for the quantitative data collection which was divided into 2 sections. Section A focused on the respondent’s demographic data, while section B focused on information relevant to the research questions. Direct approach method was used by the researcher with the help of 3 research assistants to administer 600 questionnaires to the respondents. 592 questionnaires were correctly filled and returned. Data was computer processed using version 20 of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). Percentages and frequency tables were used to present the results, while Chi-square (χ2) was used to test the hypotheses at .05 level of significance. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between dependent variables and independent variables.

 

Results

Table 1 shows that childbearing mothers between the ages of 30-34years constitute the highest population. For religion, the result indicated that 91.2% of the respondents were Christians, 4.6% were ATR, while 4.2% were Islam. As regard to occupation, majority were civil servants (34.6%), followed by traders (24.5%), students (17.1%), artisans (13.2%), private firm workers (9.1%), while house wives and farmers 1.0% and 0.5 respectively. For education, majority were SSCE/GCE holders (24.8%), followed by B.SC (19.9%), HND (19.3%), OND (15.2%), M.Sc (8.8%), FSLC (7.1%), while Ph.D and no formal education/uncompleted primary education were 3.7% and 1.2%. respectively. In terms of monthly income, majority of childbearing mothers (21.5%) earn 26,000-50,000, (18.1%) earn 101,000-125,000, (17.1%) earn 126,000-150,000, (14.9%) earn 10,000-25,000, (12.3%) earn 51,000-75,000, while (9.6%) earn 151,000 and above and (6.6%) earn 76,000-100,000. Based on parity, majority of childbearing mother (35.6%) have four children and above, (23.5%) have two children, (21.5%) have three children, while (11.5%) have one child and (7.9%) have no children. Whereas majority (45.9%) have both male and female children, (30.4%) have only male children, while (15.7%) have only female and (7.9%) have no children.

 

Table 1

Socio-demographic Characteristics of Respondents

Characteristics Frequency                    Percentage (%)
Age

15-19

 

42

 

7.1

20-24 53 9.0
25-29 103 17.4
30-34 115 19.4
35-39 96 16.2
40-44 95 16.0
45-49

 

Marital status

Single

Married

Divorced

Widowed

Religious affiliation

Christianity

ATR

Islam

 

Occupation

Students

Civil servant

Traders

Farmers

Artisans

Private firm workers

House wives

 

Level of education

No formal education

FSLC

SSCE/GCE

OND/Diploma

HND

B.Sc

M.Sc

P.hD

 

Monthly income

10,000-25,000

26,000-50,000

51,000-75,000

76,000-100,000

101,000-125,000

126,000-150,000

151,000 and above

 

Place of residence

Ihen’Owerre

Nkpunanor

Nrue

 

Parity

1

2

3

4 and above

None

 

Gender of children

Male

Female

Both male and female

None

88

 

 

83

425

40

44

 

540

27

25

 

 

101

205

145

3

78

54

6

 

 

7

42

147

90

114

118

52

22

 

 

88

127

73

39

107

101

57

 

 

199

196

197

 

68

139

127

211

47

 

 

180

93

272

47

14.9

 

 

14.0

71.8

6.8

7.4

 

91.2

4.6

4.2

 

 

17.1

34.6

24.5

0.5

13.2

9.1

1.0

 

 

1.2

7.1

24.8

15.2

19.3

19.9

8.8

3.7

 

 

14.9

21.5

12.3

6.6

18.1

17.1

9.6

 

 

33.6

33.1

33.3

 

 

11.5

23.5

21.5

35.6

7.9

 

 

30.4

15.7

45.9

7.9


Volume 3. No. 2

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN KINETICS, HEALTH AND EDUCATION (IJoHKHE)

EDITORIAL BOARDS

 Editor-in-Chief

Professor Joshua E. Umeifekwem

Head, Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Managing Editor

Prof. O.C. Ene

Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Associate Editor

Dr. Evelyn N. Nwagu

Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Editors

Tr. Professor E.S. Samuel

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Dr. G.C.Nji

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Dr. Golda O. Ekenedo

University of Port-Harcourt

 

Dr. C.C. Igbokwe

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Dr. D.O. Dike

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Dr. D.U. Chukwudo

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Dr. D.I. Ugwu

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Dr. C.N. Ogbuji

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Dr. F.C. Ugwueze

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Dr. A.N. Odo

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Consulting Editors

 

Professor A.I. Njodi

Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Maiduguiri, Bornu State

 

Professor A.O. Abass

Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Ibadan, Ibadan

 

Professor Ignatius Onyewadume

University of Botswana, Garborone

 

Professor O.A. Umeakuka

Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Professor Stephen S. Hamafyelto

Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Maiduguiri, Bornu State

 

Professor C. E. Ezedum

Madonna University, Okija

Anambra State

 

Professor Maria Ikorok

Department of Physical and Health Education

University of Uyo, AkwaIbom State.

 

Professor Musa GarbaYakasai

Department of Physical and Health Education,

Bayero University Kano, Nigeria.

 

Professor Ernest I. Achalu

Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Port Harcourt

 

Professor Charles O. Ogu

Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

 

 

 

 

 

 

GUIDELINES TO AUTHORS

 

The INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN KINETICS, HEALTH AND EDUCATION (IJoHKHE) is a double-blind and peer-reviewed Journal publication by the foremost Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka and publishes original research, applied, and educational articles in all areas of Human Kinetics, Health and Education. We also welcome healthcare professionals, experts in practical and scientific fields, as well as academics, researchers and scholars to submit their work. We publish Two times a year (June and December). Our publications are both in hardcopy and online platforms. We receive submissions all through the year.

 

Preparation and Submission of Manuscripts

  1. Manuscripts and References must conform to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA, 6th ed.) and be submitted in English.
  2. All correspondence between authors, editors and the Editor-in-Chief will be conducted electronically via e-mail attachments.
  3. Authors must submit manuscripts to the editors who will initiate the blind review by qualified experts in the subject areas. Authors will be advised of the decision on their papers within one to two months.
  4. Manuscripts submitted must be original research and not published elsewhere. While being reviewed, manuscripts should not be submitted to another journal.
  5. Manuscripts should be typed with one and half-line spacing and should not exceed 15 pages, including tables, figures, and references. The body text should be in 12 point normal Times New Roman. New paragraphs will be separated with a single empty line. The entire document should be one and half-line spaced.

The order for the manuscript presentation should be:

  1. Title Page,
  2. Blind title page (without names(s) and address(es),
  • Abstract,
  1. Text, ( provide tables, figures and plates within the text)
  2. References.

 

  1. The title page includes the full title, name of author(s), (First Name, Middle name or initials and Last/Surname) institutional affiliation(s), running head, date of manuscripts submission, full e-mail and postal address and telephone numbers of corresponding author which should be marked with an asterisk. The blind title page includes the title only.
  2. The abstract must not exceed 300 words and should summarize the paper, giving a clear indication of the conclusions.
  3. The author will also provide a biographical note of approximately 30 words.
  4. All submissions must be accompanied by a cover letter. In the cover letter, the author(s) must clearly state that the manuscript is original, it has not been published, and it is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere.
  5. None compliance with the above guidelines may disqualify the manuscript from being considered for review. Therefore, please crosscheck with the guidelines above before submission.
  6. All manuscript submissions are to be forwarded directly to any of the e-mail addresses below: umeifekwem@unn.edu.ngor osmond.ene@unn.edu.ng or evelyn.nwagu@unn.edu.ng
  7. Manuscript assessment fee is ₦3,000.00. or $10.00 In addition, the publication fee is ₦9,000.00 or $60.00 for Single Author or ₦15,000.00 or $ 90.00 for two or more authors. All financial transactions must be through the Diamond Bank Plc.
  8. Account Name: International Journal of Human kinetics, Health and Education (IJoHKHE) Diamond Bank, Account Number: 0073372922
  9. Visit our website ijohkhejournals.orgfor further information

 

Professor Joshua E. Umeifekwem

Editor-in-Chief

IJoHKHE

CONTENT

 

1. E. O. Ogueri, Nze, C. E. N.  and

A. Ibhafidon,

 

Women Education and Sustainable Development in Nigeria

 

1
2. Ifunanya R. Obi, E. S. Samuel & Kamtoochukwu M. Obi

 

Tuberculosis Related Attitude and Stigma Among Pregnant Women in Orumba South Local Government Area, Anambra State 8
3. Constance Uzoamaka Nzeako, & Martha Nnamaka Onyekaba

 

Re-Engineering Teaching Profession for Sustainable Development in Nigeria: Perspectives of Education Stakeholders.  

16

4. Rachael O. Ameh &

E.S. Samuel

 

People Living with HIV/Aids and Access to Antiretroviral Therapy Services in Benue State. 22
5. C. C. Igbokwe, L. I. Abugu &

Peace C Ugwu

Menopausal Knowledge Among In-school Adolescents in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu state, Nigeria  

31

6. Blessing Edward Sa’aku & E.S. Samuel Demographic Determinants of Risky Sexual Behaviours

Among In-School Adolescents in Wukari Local Government Area, Taraba State Nigeria

 

 

37

7. Mama, Bethrand C.

 

Parity and Economic Status as Determinants of Antenatal Care Services Utilization Among Pregnant Women in Igbo Eze South Local Government Area of Enugu State

 

 

48

8. Yohanna Wamanyi &

Tr. Prof. E.S. Samuel

 

Demographic Factors Associated with Utilization of Antenatal Care Services Among Pregnant Women in Song Local Government Area of Adamawa State

 

 

55

9. Prince C.I. Umoke, C.B. Onwe

& Maryjoy Umoke

Knowledge of Coping Strategies of Menopause Possessed by Female Non-Academic Staff of University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

 

67

10. Elizabeth Chibuzor Okafor

& E. S. Samuel

 

Knowledge, Beliefs About Cervical Cancer Among Women of Childbearing Age in Abia State

 

77
11. Angela N. Ogbonnia Attaining Sustainable Development Using New Assessment Paradigm 86

 


Women Education and Sustainable Development in Nigeria

 

  1. O. Ogueri1*, C. E. N. Nze2, & A. Ibhafidon 3

 

1&3Department of Health Education AlvanIkoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Nigeria

2Department of Agricultural Science, AlvanIkoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Nigeria

* Corresponding Author

 

Abstract

All over the world, the role of women education has been linked to the bedrock of every society and a veritable tool for sustainable development of a nation. Thus, this is an attempt to investigate women education as instrument par excellence in achieving sustainable development in Nigeria. The article x-rays concept of education, women education and quality education that is able to achieve sustainable development. It also discusses development and sustainable development. It further indicates that education empower women to a great extent and thus, women empowerment aids sustainable development. This paper therefore, suggests good educational opportunities to enhance women’s social, economic and political participation towards sustainable development.

 

Keywords: Women Education, Quality Education, Sustainable Development, Nigeria

 

Introduction

            Education is a veritable tool for sustainable development. It empowers people and strengthens nations. According to the Federal Government of Nigeria (1981), education will continue to be highly rated in national development plan, because education is the most important instrument of change as any fundamental change in the intellectual and social outlook of society has to be preceded by an educational revolution. Education means the process adopted by a given people to acquire knowledge that will facilitate the attainment of their individual and corporate survival in all aspects of life, viz: social, economic, political and cultural (Enaibe & Imonivwwerha, 2007). Anugwon (2009) asserted that education is the main tool for imparting knowledge, skills and attitudes relevant to one’s contribution to the development of the society. According to him, it is the key every individual should possess in order to make significant contribution to national development. As observed by Adedokun (2011), education more often than not, holds the key to other conditions such as taking proper decisions about living and skills that can assist one economically, politically and socially in one’s society. In the opinion of Imogie (2012), the prosperity of a country depends not only on the abundance of its revenue or on the strength of its fortifications, but on the number of its citizens that are enlightened through education.

No human society is complete without womenfolk. This is equally applicable to the nations of the world. Development of our society could hardly be attainable when women’s role is not factored in, not acknowledged and appreciated. This is because, women form the majority of the population (Akubue, 2001).  She equally maintained that any society which neglect such a large number of human resource potential cannot achieve any meaningful development. This reality is also articulated in Amucheazi (2001) when he described African traditional society women as being hardworking and resourceful in the following words. They engage themselves in income generating activities of various types such as processing of palm-oil, garri, soap making, weaving, sewing and pottery. Generally, African women carry significant proportion of the work load in food and crop production, animal husbandry, food processing and distribution. They combine all these with their traditional role of procreation and home management.

Education is seen as powerful instrument through which sustainable development can be attained (Federal Republic of Nigeria FRN, 2004). Education in this sense has no gender or sex attachment. This is because the type of development referred to requires corporate participation of members of the society, men and women alike. The fact remains that “the task of nation building demands that all hands should be on deck in order to initiate ideas, make plans and participate in their actual implementation for maximum contribution towards sustainable development in technology and positive outcomes, both sexes (male and female) should be equally interested in science and arts subjects (Onwubiko, 2012). The above fact simply shows the relevance of both sexes (male and female) in sustainable development.  This is when “gender equality and woman empowerment continue to be central theme in global treaties, covenants and declarations because they are now acknowledged as important to people centreed development roadmap.

Education is something that is very helpful in developing a country. There are a lot of positive aspects of relationship between education and sustainable development. Having educated people can help to keep the society under control, which then helps contribute to sustainable development. A healthy population is one that is filled with more educated women. Having educated women helps to set good goals for girls. More educated women also have smaller families because they know more about ways to not get pregnant.  Education is something that not only affects a society but also an individual and their behaviour; helps to shape people in the workforce which help to make future national development even better (Ojieh, 2007).  Onwuka (2008) affirmed that women need adequate formal education to enable them face challenges of changing global economy. In the same vein, Ogueri and Ewuzie (2016) maintained that “educated women are crucial in the development of any nation; uneducated women are real drag on progress.

On seeing that education is one of the powerful instruments of empowering women with the knowledge and skills that would help them to participate actively in the development process, Nigeria became a signatory to the United Nations 1979 Convention known as ‘Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (EDAW)’. Despite the effort of various governments to close the gap created by gender discrimination, there still existed wide gap between men and women in public life and in all sectors. A lot of traditional and cultural factors have been claimed to be limiting women educationally and economically among other opportunities. These cultural practices constituted a lot of barriers to women educational opportunities in all spheres of life (Agu, 2007).

However, Nigerian women have done a lot to escape from cultural prejudice and male chauvinism that inhibited their progress. Women most of the times prefer to work in groups to enable them solve their socio-economic, political and cultural problems. They pull their meager resources together and are able to provide social services infrastructure in their communities and thereby promote development and community solidarity (Ezegbe&Akubue, 2012).  Women form non-governmental organizations (NGO) to fight economic obnoxious policies that are against women such as political participation, legal status, child marriage to mention but a few.

Some women groups especially in the rural areas undertake and complete such project as installation of electric generating plant, water borehole, building of classrooms and community halls. Women have endeavoured to overcome discrimination against them through education. According to Okojie (2011), it is a common feature in Nigeria to see women in every highly placed position. Some are medical doctors, pharmacists, architects, university dons of all ranks including professors, bankers, media women and even business tycoons. Nigerian women have indeed ventured into male dominated professions which include aviation, armed forces and so on. In fact, in all spheres of life women are there working, both in Nigerian and in many other countries contributing socio-economic development. Education has gone a long way in making Nigerian women realize their potentials.

 

Concept of Education.

Okere (2002) points out that education is not just the ability to read and write, but also the ability to use printed and written information to function in the society, to achieve one’s goal and to develop one’s knowledge and potentials. He stresses that to be educated is not just to have mastered the skills of reading, writing and computing with numbers, but also entails the ability to use those skills effectively for communication in all aspects of one’s life in social, cultural, economic and political sphere.

In the opinion of Enoch (2006), education has to do with systematic development and the cultivation of the mind and other natural powers while Joseph (2007) sees education as a process by which we acquire knowledge, skills, habits, values or attitude to be able to become useful and justly related member of the society. Okere (2002), defines education as “a process of developing the individual morally, socially, emotionally, physically, aesthetically and for his welfare as well as the welfare of the society.

Education helps members of the society to acquire suitable appreciation of their cultural heritage and to live a fully more satisfying life. This includes the acquisition of desirable skills, knowledge, habits and values for people living in the society. It equips the members of the society with the capabilities of personal survival in and contributing to other group’s survival in the wider world (Chukwusa, 2011).  Fadeiye and Olonegan (2011) noted that it is a treasure in which every human kind should heavily invest in earthly pursue to its indefinite end. According to Martins (2015), it is central to development because it is an instrument for acquisition of appropriate skills, ability and competence for both mental and physical as equipment for individual to live in and contribute to the development of the society.

In the view of Adedokun (2011), education should seek to fit the ordinary individual to fill a useful part in his environment and to ensure that exceptional individual shall use their capabilities for the development of the community. Olomukoro (2012) saw education as a powerful agent of socialization in that it plays a tremendous role in preparing an individual to render active and useful service both to the family and society in general.

Ozokwere (2013) maintained that education is one of the most important means of empowering human beings with the knowledge, skills and self-confidence necessary to participate fully in the development of a nation. Oloniyi (2015) affirmed that education is a dynamic instrument for change geared towards nation development. It is therefore, important to everyone but it is especially significant for girls and women because an educated woman is an asset to her family, community and nation in general.

 

Women Education.

Anugwom (2009), asserted that women education is a multidimensional process involving the empowerment and transformation of the economic, socio-psychological, political and legal circumstances of the powerless. According to Sako (2009), it is the process of strengthening the existing capacities and capabilities of women in the society to enable them perform towards improving themselves, their families and the society as a whole. It involves all efforts that is geared towards harnessing the hidden or untapped potentials in women. Akubue (2001) affirmed that women education is a process of sensitizing the girl-child on the need to possess basic skills, knowledge, ability and attitude to make her fit positively, comfortably and productively into the society.

Women education thus, connotes empowerment of women for self-reliance so that they can be fulfilled in life and be able to contribute to the society (Okojie, 2011). In the opinion of Varshase (2011) women education is a process whereby women become able to organize themselves to increase their self-reliance, to assert their independent right, to make choice and control resources which will assist in challenging and eliminating their own subordination.

 

Quality Education.

            Heneveli (1994) identifies quality in education as the new right’s assault and transformation of educational practices; essentially concerned with the marketization of education as the only legitimate device for promoting educational quality. He defined quality in terms of efficiency, value, for money and meeting the demands of educational consumers. Sayed (1997) identifies educational quality as a judgment of the level of achievement in some defined attribute relative to a standard – a ‘gold standard’.  He further builds into the concept of quality the recognition of its essentially moral, political and ethical nature.  He further argues that this understanding of the concept becomes meaningful if it is combined with greater transparency in public life that exposes educational decision making to critical and informed dialogue.

Hawas and Stephens (2000) believe that quality in education can be interpreted as having three strands: efficiency in meeting set goals, relevance to human and environmental needs and conditions and something more in relation to the pursuit of excellence and human betterment. Peters (2004) states that quality education is relevant and adapted to the needs of the society. He argued that such needs must meet the standards in health, growth and physical survival in a complex and globalized world. It implies that quality education is worthwhile, which empowers the recipients with relevant skills, knowledge, ideas, values and attitudes needed for him/her to make informed decisions and live a self-sustained life.

Kagia (2005) maintained that quality education is value-loaded and should produce discipline behaviour, hard work, improved cultural heritage and mutual respect within and outside the school community. He continued, quality education is expected to address critical issues like the dignity of labour, quality leadership and committed citizenship, industrial harmony, political stability, religious tolerance, self-reliance and security.

Therefore, quality education entails that the products of institutions of higher education should be able to perform according to expected standard and compete favourably with their peers in other countries of the world. Quality education is the education that produces a complete person. Complete in the sense that the person is intellectually, morally, physically, emotionally and socially developed.

 

Concept of Development.

            Barbier (2006) described development as what we do in attempting to improve our life within the environment. United Nation Development Programme (UNDP, 2006) identifies development as economic growth, modernization distributive justice, socio-economic transformation and spatial re-organization. Rogers (2006) saw development as a type of social change in which new ideas are introduced within a social system to higher per capita income and levels of living through more production, methods and social organizations.

Rogers (2010) believed that development should mean “a widely participatory process of social change in society intended to bring about social and material advancement for the majority of people through gaining control over their environment. United Nations (2012) confirmed that development is said to bring with it valuable and positive changes that improves the living standards of the people, as it creates employment opportunities and equality of opportunity and reduces poverty among other things. The organization further stressed that this increases the efficiency of a system in the production of goods and services to meet the basic needs of the people in a society.

In the light of the above, development means greater understanding of social, economic and political process, enhanced competence to analyze and solve problems of day-to-day living, expansion of manual skills, greater control over economic resources, restoration of human dignity, self-respect and equality (United Nations, 2014).  Thus, development is seen as a multi-dimensional process involving the transformation and improvement of economic, social and political situations.

 

Sustainable Development.

            United Nations (2000) broadly defined sustainable development as a system approach to growth and development and to manage natural resources, production and social capital for the welfare of their own and future generation. In defining sustainable development, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, 2005), acknowledge the need for both intra and inter-generational equity-development that meets not only today’s human needs but also those of more people in the future. The term sustainable development as used by the United Nation Development Programme (2006) in corporate both issues associated with land development and broader issues of human development such as education, public health and standard of living. The commission further argued that development is sustainable if it meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

According to United Nation (UN, 2012) sustainable development could probably be otherwise called ‘equitable and balanced’, meaning that, in order for development to continue indefinitely, it should balance the interests of different groups of people, within the same generation and among generations, and to do so simultaneously in three major interrelated areas – economic, social and environmental.

United Nation (UN, 2014) further explained that the concept of sustainable development implies limits nor absolute limits, but limitations imposed by the present state of technology and social organization on environmental resources and by the ability of the biosphere to absorb the effects of human activities. The organization stressed that technology and social organization can be managed and improved to make way for a new era of economic growth.

United Nation (2014) has described sustainable development in terms of three dimensions or domains: economic, environmental and social or “ecology, economy and equity”. This has been expanded by some authors to include a fourth domain of culture (James, Magee, Scerri & Steger, 2015), institutions or governance (Scerri & James, 2015). A study of UNDP (2015) concluded that sustainable development should be reframed through the lens of four interconnected domains: environmental, economics, politics and culture. The organization emphasized that sustainable development links the welfare of generations with the capacity of the biosphere to sustain life and has a policy focus. Sustainable development is not a fix state but rather a process of change in which resources exploitation, the direction of investment, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are made consistent with the future as well as present needs (James, Magee, Scerri & Steger, 2015).

As shown in figure there is increase in girl’s primary and secondary school enrolment than boys between 1980 – 2015. Since independence, the emphasis on education as the main means of achieving development and national unity is influenced to increase on primary and secondary school enrolment. The increase in girl’s secondary school enrolment is associated with increase in women participation in labour force, their contributions to household and national income.

Also, the data shows that children, especially female enrolled in secondary school to have higher levels of educational attainment. Hence, the positive cyclical effects on women education in the society cannot be over emphasized. According to Egbo (2000) the most important measurable forms of economic benefits include employment, earnings, enhance greater productivity consumption behavior, fiscal capacity and intergenerational effects. Kassim – Eghiator (2005) affirmed that educated women participate in politics and are able to contribute their knowledge to national unity, reconstruction and development. Osokoya (2008) maintained that the role of women education has gone beyond the four walls of their home and extends to all sphere of human endeavors in the development of the nation.

 

Conclusion

This paper discussed women education and sustainable development in Nigeria.  the paper x-rays concept of education, women education and quality education that is able to achieve sustainable development. It also discusses concept of development and sustainable development.  The research work shows increase in female primary and secondary enrolment from 1980 – 2015. Thus, the research work concludes that education influences women empowerment to a great extent. Hence, women empowerment aids sustainable development.

 

 

Recommendation

It is along this line that the paper feels inclined to put across some recommendations which include:

  1. The society should abolish cultural beliefs and traditional practices that make women have limited access to economic rights and privileges.
  2. The government through education should modify the curriculum where necessary, to expunge those aspects/portions that carry huge dose of gender stereotype that reflects the societal expectation of each gender.
  3. Parents, guardians and the society should send their children to school base on the ability of the child irrespective of the gender of the child. This is because a female child that is empowered through education will always provide for her family even when she is married.
  4. Literacy programmes should be incorporated with life skills components so that women can be well equipped to perform their roles more effectively.
  5. Educated women should work hard to ensure that they raise social awareness of large number of women in the rural areas through effective educative programmes, and mass communication as these will help to improve their self-confidence.

 

 

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Tuberculosis Related Attitude and Stigma Among Pregnant Women in Orumba South Local Government Area, Anambra State

 

Ifunanya R. Obi1*, E. S. Samuel2&Kamtoochukwu M. Obi3

1Federal College of Education (Technical) Umunze

2Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Nigeria Nsukka,

3Department of Community Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi

* Corresponding Author: 0803 376 1698

 

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to find out the tuberculosis (TB) related attitude and stigma among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Primary Health Care centres in the rural communities in Orumba South Local Government Area of Anambra State. To achieve the purpose of the study, two objectives were formulated with two corresponding research questions while four hypotheses were postulated. The cross-sectional research design was used for the study. The population for this study consisted of all the pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the eleven PHCs and convenience sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 260 pregnant women used for the study.  The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire. Frequencies and percentages were used to answer research questions, while Chi-square statistic was used for testing the null hypotheses. The result of the study indicated that: majority (65.33%) of pregnant women had positive attitude towards TB and slightly less than one-half of pregnant women demonstrated TB related stigma, there was no significant difference in TB related attitude by pregnant women according to age (χ2 = 4.687, p= .292 > .05) and level of education (χ2 = 13.324, p= .382 > .05). There was no significant difference in TB related stigma according to age (χ2 = 2.196, p= .138> .05)while there was significant difference in TB related stigma by pregnant women according to level of education (χ2 = 11.286, p= .010 < .05). Based on major findings and conclusions, it was recommended among others that government and non-governmental organizations should develop suitable intervention programmes that will convince pregnant women and members of the community to have zero TB related stigma through effective health education in the communities.

 

Keywords: Tuberculosis, Attitude, Stigma, Pregnant women

 

Introduction

Tuberculosis (TB) is a systemic infectious or communicable bacterial disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis, which affects the lungs, intestine, meninges, bones and joints, lymph nodes, skin, and other tissues of the body. Davis (2014) stated that TB is a multi-systemic infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis, a rod-shaped bacterium that infects human tissue(s). TB is endemic in many developing and under-developed countries. Nigeria, a developing country is one of the high burden countries with TB. According to Agho, Hall and Ewald (2014), substantial investments have been made in the National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTCP) to address the problem, such as the use of directly observed therapy (DOTS) to achieve and maintain high cure rate. Despite these investments however, early detection of TB cases remains a major obstacle in effective TB case management (Dosumu, 2008).

Predisposing factors to TB infection include anything that weakens a person’s immune system or puts someone in frequent or close contact with people who have active TB, poverty, HIV infection, homelessness, being in jail or prison, and substance abuse. The signs and symptoms of TB are cough lasting more than three weeks, weight loss, haemoptysis, chest pain, fever, night sweats, tiredness, back pain, swelling on spine, loss of function in lower limbs, blood in urine, neck stiffness, hoarseness of voice and pain on swallowing. The transmission of infection is mainly by airborne droplets from sputum of infected persons, often adults, with pulmonary TB. Such persons spread the bacilli by coughing, sneezing, talking, singing and it is enhanced by over-crowding and poorly ventilated accommodation (Obionu, 2007). Lucas and Gilles (2006) added that TB is transmitted by ingestion of contaminated milk and infected meat.

According to Dreyer (2015), most important in TB prevention is achieved by people taking their medicine as prescribed. Dreyer (2015) maintained that early detection of cases and prompt treatment are crucial in controlling the spread of TB and also if one is infected while at home, there is the need to protect self and others by washing hands after sneezing, coughing or holding hands near the mouth or nose, covering the mouth with tissue when coughing, sneezing or laughing, discarding used tissue in a plastic bag, seal and throwing away. Dreyer further stated that people who are infectious should not attend school or work, avoid close contact with people, sleep in a room away from others, ventilate room regularly and put a fan in the window to blow out air that may contain bacteria. Understanding tuberculosis related attitude and stigma of people will help in the control of the disease. A negative attitude would lead to stigmatization and thus may increase the incidence and prevalence of TB.

Luthans (2007) defined attitude as a persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way towards an object. Attitudes are complex cognitive processes which consist of three components which includes the person’s feeling about an object, the information the individual has about the object and the behavioural component consisting of a person’s tendencies to behave in a particular way towards an object. The author further states that attitudes tend to persist unless something is done to change them. TB-related attitude refers a set of affective reactions towards TB which predisposes a pregnant woman to behave either positively or negatively in a certain manner towards TB.

Stigma as defined by Weiss and Ramakrishna (2006) are social processes or related personal experiences characterized by exclusion, rejection or blame that result from experience or reasonable anticipation of an adverse social judgment about a person or group identified with a particular problem. Franklin, Tora, Deribe, Reda and Devy (2013) stated that stigma is typically characterized by social disqualification of individuals and populations who are identified with particular health problems and judged as a result of the condition. TB-related stigma is a label given to individuals with TB by people who are not suffering from the disease, often caused by a set of negative and unfair beliefs that a society or group of people have about TB.Stigma is a label or mark of disgrace that sets a person apart. The obvious cause of stigmatization is the fear of being infected.

In developing countries death during pregnancy has continued to be a public health problem and Park (2009) was of the opinion that one of the problem facing women is that TB kills them during pregnancy, labour and puerperium than other causes of maternal mortality. Pregnant women infected with mycobacterium tuberculosis require special attention because of altered immunity associated with pregnancy and because of neonatal care issues (Rigby, 2009). Pregnant women were used for this study because they are accessible members of the community and hazards of TB during pregnancy could be fatal for them. The situation regarding TB-related attitude and stigma among pregnant women in Orumba South Local Government Area is not documented to the best of the researcher’s knowledge; this is perhaps why this study was necessary and also determined how age and level of education influence them in other to proffer solutions to reduce the incidence and prevalence of TB.

Age and level of education are socio-demographic factors associated with TB-related attitude and stigma.Obuku, Meynell, Kiboss-Kyeyune, Blankley, Atuhairwe, Nabankema, Lab, Jeffery and Ndungutse (2012) in their study reported that their older respondents had positive attitude and zero stigma towards TB unlike the younger adults. This was possible because they had more repeated chances of reinforcing exposure to TB information. Also, Sagili, Satyanarayana and Chadha (2016) in their study reported that their respondents with no formal education had high TB related stigma than those with other levels of education.

The purpose of the study was to find out the TB-related attitude and stigma among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Primary Health Care centres in the rural communities in Orumba South Local Government Area of Anambra State. Specifically, the study determined the proportion of pregnant women with TB related attitude and TB related stigma and tested four null hypotheses of significant difference in the TB related attitude and TB related stigma of pregnant women according to age and level of education.

 

Method

The cross-sectional research design was used for the study. The population for this study consisted of all the pregnant women who attended antenatal clinics and the sample for the study was 260 pregnant women. This was obtained through convenience sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was a researcher designed questionnaire. The face validity of this research instrument was established by four experts in Health Education. Cronbach’s alpha statistic was used to establish the reliability of the instrument. A reliability index of 0.69 was obtained and thus, the instrument was adjudged reliable. Copies of the questionnaire were administered to the respondents in each Primary Health Care (PHC) centres by the researcher and research assistants who were health workers in the PHCs. The completed copies were collected on the spot. Data was analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 20). Frequencies and percentages were used to answer research questions and hypotheses were tested using the chi-square statistic.

 

Results

Table 1

Proportion of Pregnant women with TB related Attitude (N=260)

____________________________________________________________________________________

                                                                                                   Strongly Agree                               Strongly Disagree                                                                                                                                      +                                                                 +                          

                                                                                                                Agree                      Undecided              Disagree

S/N          Dimensions of TB                                                                 f (%)                       f (%)                       f (%)

                Meaning

  1. TB is a disease caused by witches, wizards

and enemies                                                                             69 (26.5)                 19 (7.3)                   172 (66.2)

Cluster (%)                                                                            26.5                         7.3                           66.2

Causes

  1. TB is caused by bacteria 211 (81.2)               35 (13.5)                 14 (5.4)

Cluster (%)                                                                            81.2                         13.5                         5.4                                           Signs and symptoms

  1. Coughing up blood is a sign of TB 223 (85.8)               28 (10.8)                 9 (3.5)
  2. I think of visiting a doctor for further

Examination if I have the symptoms of

cough, sputum, poor appetite, weight loss,

and night sweating                                                                  237 (91.2)               17 (6.5)                   6 (2.3)

Cluster (%)                                                                            88.5                         8.65                         2.9

                Mode of transmission

  1. Sneezing from a TB patient may be a source

of infection to another                                                             197 (75.8)               31 (11.9)                 32 (12.3)

  1. Sexual intercourse with a TB patient may

lead to TB infection                                                 108 (41.5)               62 (23.8)                 90 (34.6)

Cluster (%)                                                                            58.65                       17.85                       23.45

                Predisposing factors

  1. Poverty can lead to TB infection 94 (36.2)                 44 (16.9)                 122 (46.9)
  2. Smoking and alcoholism may not make me get TB 87 (33.5) 69 (26.5)                 104 (40.0)

                Cluster (%)                                                                            34.85                       21.7                         43.45

                Prevention

  1. Every family should maintain adequate air

circulation and sufficient amount of sunlight

indoors                                                                                    236 (90.8)               18 (6.9)                   6 (2.3)

  1. Everyone should actively educate friends

and family members on the methods of TB

prevention                                                                               236 (90.8)               11 (4.2)                   13 (5.0)

Cluster (%)                                                                            90.8                         5.55                         3.65

                Overall (%)                                                                            65.33                       12.83                       21.85

________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Table 1 shows that majority of the pregnant women had positive attitude regarding causes (81.2%), signs and symptoms (88.5%), mode of transmission (58.65%) and prevention (90.8%). The Table also shows that majority of the pregnant women had negative attitude regarding meaning (66.2%) and predisposing factors (43.45%). Overall, the Table further shows that majority (65.33%) had positive attitude regarding TB, 21.85 per cent had negative attitude while 12.83 per cent were undecided.

           

 

Table 2

Proportion of Pregnant Women with TB Related Stigma (N=260)

___________________________________________________________________________________

                                                                                                                                                 Yes                              No

                                                                                                                                                _______________________

S/N         Dimensions of TB                                                                                              f (%)                      f (%)

_______________________________________________________________________________________

  1. Someone who has TB should not be talked to 51 (19.6)                209 (80.4)
  2. I would be uncomfortable working with someone who has TB 182 (70.0)             78 (30.0)
  3. I think most people will feel uncomfortable living with

someone who has TB                                                                                         228 (87.7)             32 (12.3)

  1. I cannot marry someone who has TB 188 (72.3)             72 (27.7)
  2. The opinions of someone who has TB should be ignored 50 (19.0)                210 (80.8)
  3. I would feel ashamed if others knew someone in my

family has TB                                                                                                      128 (49.2)             132 (50.8)

  1. If I had TB I would keep it a secret 81 (31.2)                179 (68.8)
  2. I would not remain a friend of someone that had TB

once I find out about the disease                                                                     77 (29.6)                183 (70.4)

Overall (%)                                                                                                         47.35                      52.65

 

Results in Table 2 show that an overall slightly lower than half (47.35%) of pregnant women expressed stigma regarding TB. The Table further shows that majority of the women expressed stigma towards the following items; I would feel uncomfortable working with someone who has TB (70.0%), I think people will feel uncomfortable living with someone who has TB (87.7%) and I cannot marry someone who has TB (72.3%) while about 31 per cent of them demonstrated stigma to the statement “if I had TB I would keep it a secret”.

 

Table 3

Summary of Chi-square (χ2) Analysis Testing the Null Hypothesis of No Significant Difference in TB Related Attitude among Pregnant Women According to Age

__________________________________________________________________________________

Age

_______________________________________

15-29 years (N=117)                ≥ 30 years(N=143)                                                                                                         _______________________________________

A             UD          DA              A            UD       DAχ2      df     p-value  Decision

Dimensions of TB_______________________________________________________________________________________Meaning/ causes of TB          31           77           9                    49          93          1          9.450      2              .009        Rejected

  1. Signs and symptoms 108         9              0                  132          10          1          .861       2              .650      Accepted
  2. Mode of transmission 69           45           3                    76          58          9          403      2              .301      Accepted
  3. Predisposing factors 21           67           29                 48          73      22          276      2              .010        Rejected
  4. Prevention 108         8              1                  131          12          0          428      2              .490      Accepted

Overall χ2                                             67.4      41.2      8.4                 87.2       49.2      6.6         4.687      2              .292      Accepted

Key:       A –Agree               UD – Undecided                  D- Disagree

 

Table 3 shows the chi-square values for signs and symptoms (χ2 = .861, p= .650 > .05), mode of transmission (χ2 = 2.404, p= .301 > .05) and prevention (χ2 = 1.428, p= .490 > .05) with their corresponding p-values which are greater than .05 level of significance at 2 degrees of freedom. Therefore, the null hypothesis is accepted. This implies that TB related attitude of pregnant women regarding signs and symptoms, mode of transmission and prevention of TB as the same for the two age brackets. The Table further shows the Chi-square values and the corresponding p-value for meaning / causes of TB (χ2 = 9.450, p= .009 < .05) and predisposing factors (χ2 = 9.276, p= .010 < .05). Since the p-values are less than .05 level of significance and at 2 degrees of freedom, the null hypothesis is therefore rejected. This implies that the TB related attitude of pregnant women regarding meaning/ causes and predisposing factors differed according to age. The Table also shows the overall chi-square values of 4.687 with a p-value of .292 which is greater than .05 level of significance at 2 degrees of freedom. The null hypothesis of no significant difference is therefore accepted. This implies that the TB related attitude of pregnant women did not differ according to age.

 

Table 4

Summary of Chi-square (χ2) Analysis Testing the Null Hypothesis of No Significant Difference in TB Related Attitude among Pregnant Women According to Level of Education

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Level of Education

________________________________________________________

NFE                     PE                       SE    TE

Dimensions of TB                                   (N=18)          (N=48)                    (N=114)          (N=80)

A    UD    DA    A    UD    DA           A    UD    DA    A    UD    DA   χ2df      p-value     Decision

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. Meaning and Causes of TB   15    3       0     16     28      4             38     73      3     11     66       3     200      6       .000                Rejected
  2. Signs and symptoms   16     2       0    41      7       0                107    7        0     76      3       1       044      6       .235         Accepted
  3. Mode of transmission  10     5        3    27     19      2                73     38       3     35     41       4     660      6       .023        Rejected
  4. Predisposing factors  7       8        3    12     28       8               29     64      21    21     40      19     011                6       .808        Accepted
  5. Prevention  17      1        0    45      3       0                104   10       0     73      6        1      703                6       .845        Accepted

Overall χ2                                 13   3.8    1.2    28.2    17   2.8    70.2   38.4   5.4   43.2   31.2    5.6    13.324       6       .382      Accepted

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Key:       NFE- No formal education   PE- Primary education   SE- Secondary education   TE- Tertiary education

A –Agree                                 UD – Undecided              D- Disagree

 

Table 4 shows the chi-square values with their corresponding p-values for signs and symptoms (χ2 = 8.044, p= .235 > .05), predisposing factors (χ2 = 3.011, p= .808 > .05) and prevention (χ2 = 2.703, p= .845 > .05) which are greater than .05 level of significance and at 6 degrees of freedom. Therefore, the null hypothesis is accepted. This means that the TB related attitude of pregnant women regarding signs and symptoms, predisposing factors and prevention does not differ according to level of education. The Table further shows that chi-square values for meaning/ causes (χ2 = 38.200, p= .000 < .05) and mode of transmission (χ2 = 14.660, p= .23 < .05) with their responding p-values which are less than .05 level of significance and at 6 degrees of freedom. The null hypothesis is therefore rejected. This implies that the TB related attitude of pregnant women regarding meaning/ causes and mode of transmission differed according to level of education. The Table also shows the overall chi-square value of 13.324 with a p-value of .382 which is greater than .05 level of significance at 6 degrees of freedom. The null hypothesis of no significant difference is therefore accepted. This implies that the TB related attitude of pregnant women did not differ according to level of education.

 

Table 5

Summary of Chi-square (χ2) Analysis Testing the Null Hypothesis of No Significant Difference in TB Related Stigma among Pregnant Women According to Age

______________________________________________________________________

Age

Age Category                             _________________________

Yes                         No                           χ2                  df            p-value  Decision

__________________________________________________________________________________________

15 – 29 years                                        63                           54

2.196      1              .138        Accepted

≥ 30 years                                             90                           53

__________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Table 5 shows that chi-square value of no difference in TB related stigma among pregnant women according to age (χ2 = 2.196, p= .138 > .05). Since the corresponding p-value which is greater than .05 level of significance at one degree of freedom, the null hypothesis is accepted. This implies that their TB related stigma among pregnant women did not differ according to age.

 

Table 6

Summary of Chi-square (χ2) Analysis Testing the Null Hypothesis of No Significant Difference in TB Related Stigma among Pregnant Women According to Level of Education

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

Level of education

_______________________

 

Level of education                   Yes                          No           χ2                   df             p-value                    Decision

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

No formal education                                14                            4

Primary education                   19                            29                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11.286     3              .010                         Rejected

Secondary education                               73                            41

Tertiary education                    47                            33

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Table 6 shows that chi-square value of no difference in TB related stigma among pregnant women according to level of education (χ2 = 11.286, p= .010 < .05). Since the corresponding p-value is less than .05 level of significance at 3 degrees of freedom, the null hypothesis is rejected. This implies that TB related stigma among pregnant women differed according to level of education.

 

Discussion

The finding in Table 1 indicated that majority of pregnant women (65.33%) demonstrated positive attitude while 21.85 per cent had negative attitude towards TB. This finding is a welcome development but, however, surprising since it does not agree with the finding of Sagili, Satyanarayana and Chadha (2016) who found that negative attitude was high among their respondents and this was independent of correct knowledge of TB. Therefore, it is possible that correct knowledge did not affect attitude. The finding did not agree with that of Tobin, Okojie and Isah (2013) who found that there was negative attitude towards TB and it was not related to the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. Bati, Legesse and Medhin (2013) also found that negative attitude was associated with their female respondents and this did not agree with the finding of this study because the respondents were all females. This finding implies that majority of the pregnant women in these rural communities have positive attitude towards TB. Therefore, health workers in the area should intensify health education to sustain and increase the positive attitude of the women towards the disease.

            The finding in Table 2 indicated that slightly less than one-half of pregnant women (47.35%) demonstrated TB related stigma. This finding is surprising because there were high stigma related responses to some items in the questionnaire and also based on the researcher’s observation, stigma is attached to TB in the area. This finding does not agree with that of Sagili, Satyanarayana and Chadha (2016) who found that stigmatization remained high in the general population of India and also that of Cremers, de Laat, Kapata, Gerrets, Klipstein-Grobusch and Grobusch (2015) who found that 82 per cent of patients with TB reported stigma. The finding does not also agree with that of Viney, Johnson, Tagaro, Fanai, Linh, Kelly, Harley and Sleigh (2014) who found that 74 per cent of the respondents demonstrated TB related stigma. Anochie, Onyeneke, Onyeozirila, Igbolekwu, Onyeneke and Ogu (2013) also found that in their study in a Nigerian rural community, 97 per cent of their respondents showed TB related stigma. This does not agree with the finding of this study which was also conducted in rural communities. The finding is in line with that of Onyeonoro, Chukwu, Oshi, Nwafor, and Meka (2014) who found that rural communities are less likely to stigmatize against persons with TB. The implication of this finding is that more health education is required by the rural communities to further reduce the stigma related to TB.

The finding in Table 3 showed that there was no significant difference in TB related attitude of pregnant women according to age (χ2 = 4.687, p= .292 > .05). This finding is expected because majority of pregnant women had positive attitude and there was not much difference in the attitude of the two age groups. This finding is in agreement with that of Sagili, Satyanarayana and Chadha (2016) who found that age was not significantly associated with TB related attitude.

The finding in Table 4 showed that there was no significant difference in TB related attitude of pregnant women according to level of education (χ2 = 13.324, p= .382 > .05). This finding is not consistent with other findings such as that of Sagili, Satyanarayana and Chadha (2016) who found that level of education is significantly associated with attitude towards TB. The finding also disagrees with that of Onyeonoro, Chukwu, Oshi, Nwafor, and Meka (2014) who found that educational status was significantly associated with TB related attitude (p=0.000). This finding contrasts that Konda, Melo and Giri (2016) who found significant difference in TB related attitude according to level of education (p= 0.002).

The finding in Table 5 showed that there was no significant difference in TB related stigma by pregnant women according to age (χ2 = 2.196, p= .138 > .05). This implies that the TB related stigma among pregnant women did not differ according to age. This finding contrasts with that of Obuku, Meynell, Kiboss-Kyeyune, Blankley, Atuhairwe, Nabankema, Lab, Jeffery and Ndungutse (2012) who reported that their older respondents had zero stigma towards TB unlike the younger adults. Therefore, there is need to revise the currently used message for educating people on TB so as to reduce stigmatization.

The finding in Table 6 showed that there was significant difference in TB related stigma by pregnant women according to level of education (χ2 = 11.286, p= .010 < .05). This finding agrees with that of Anochie, Onyeneke, Onyeozirila, Igbolekwu, Onyeneke and Ogu (2013) who reported that there was significant difference in TB related stigma according to level of education. This implies that there is need to create continued community awareness regarding the disease and this is necessary for the TB control strategy.

 

Conclusion

            Based on the findings and the discussion of the study, the following conclusions were made. Majority of pregnant women irrespective of age and level of education had positive attitude towards TB while slightly less than one-half of pregnant women irrespective of age and level of education demonstrated TB related stigma. There was no significant difference in TB related attitude by pregnant women according to age and level of education. However, there was no significant difference in TB related stigma by pregnant women according to age while there was significant difference in TB related stigma by pregnant women according to level of education.

 

Recommendations

            Based on the findings of the present study, the discussion and conclusions thereof, the following recommendations were made:

  1. Government and non-governmental organizations should develop suitable intervention programmes that will convince pregnant women and members of the community to have zero TB related stigma through effective health education in the communities.
  2. Public health educators and relevant agencies concerned with TB programmes should organize seminars, workshops and conferences at community levels on the meaning, cause, signs and symptoms, mode of transmission, predisposing factors and prevention of TB.
  3. Health education on TB should be carried out for all members of the community and be repeated at specific intervals to ensure that learnt information is put into their daily life practices.

 

References

 

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Anochie, P. I., Onyeneke, E. C., Onyeozirila, A. C., Igbolekwu, L. C., Onyeneke, B. C. & Ogu,        A. C. (2013). Evaluation of public awareness and attitude to pulmonary tuberculosis in a    Nigerian rural community. BioMed Central Public Health Journal, 3 (2), 52-62.

Bati, J., Legesse, M. &Medhin, G. (2013). Community’s knowledge, attitudes and practices about tuberculosis in Itang Special Disrict, Gambella Region, South Western Ethiopia.     BioMed Central Public Health journal, 13:734-740.

Cremers, A. L., De Laat, M. M., Kapata, N., Gernets, R., Klipstein-Gobusch, K. &Gobusch, M.        P. (2015). Assessing the consequences of stigma for tuberculosis patients in Urban        Zambia. Plos One health Journal, 10 (3), 1-5.

Davis, C. P. (2014). What are tuberculosis symptoms and signs. Retrieved on 03/04/16 from             www.medicinenet.com.

Dosumu, E. A. (2008). Survey of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding tuberculosis among      general and private medical practitioners in Nigeria. African Journal for Respiratory        Medicine, 4 (8); 9-17.

Dreyer, A. W. (2015). How can tuberculosis be prevented. National Institute for Communicable       Diseases. Retrieved on 03/04/16 from www.health24.com/medical/tuberculosis.

Franklin, H., Torka, A., Deribe, K. Reda, A. A. & Davey, G. (2013). Development of a scale to       measure stigma related to podoconiosis in Southern Ethiopia. BioMed Central Journal of       Public Health, 13; 298-302.

Konda, S. G., Melo, C. A. &Giri, P. A. (2016). Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding    tuberculosis among new pulmonary tuberculosis patients in a new urban township in   India. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 5 (3); 563-569.

Lucas, A.O. & Gilles, H.M. (2006). Short Textbook of Public Health Medicine for the

            Tropics (4th Edition). London: Bookpower.

Luthans, F. (2007). Organizational Behaviour (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Book         Company.

Obionu, C.N. (2007). Primary Health Care for Developing Countries. (2nd Edition). Enugu:

Institute for Development Studies.

Obuku, E. A., Meynell, C., Kiboss-Kyeyune, J., Blankley, S., Atuhairwe, C., Nabankema, E.,           Lab, M., Jeffrey, N. & Ndungutse, D. (2012). Socio-demographic determinants and      prevalence of tuberculosis knowledge in three slum populations of Uganda. BioMed     Central Journal of Public Health. 12:536. Retrieved on 03/08/2016 from          www.biomedcentral.com.

Onyeonoro, U. U., Chukwu, J. N., Oshi, D. C., Nwafor, C. C. &Meka, A. O. (2014). Assessment     of tuberculosis related knowledge, attitude and practice in Enugu, South East Nigeria.            Journal of Infectious Diseases and Immunity, 6(1), 1-9.

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Rigby, F.B. (2009). Tuberculosis and pregnancy. Medscape Medical Journal. Retrieved on 28/03/16 from www.ncbi.com.

Sagili, K. D., Satyanarayana, S. & Chadha, S. S. (2016). Is knowledge regarding tuberculosis            associated with stigmatizing and discriminating attitudes of general population            towards tuberculosis patients? Plos One health Journal, 11 (2), 56-59.

Tobin, E. A., Okojie, P. W &Isah, E. C. (2013). Knowledge and perception of pulmonary     tuberculosis in a rural community in Edo State, Nigeria. Journal of the Nigerian Medical     Association, 15 (8);148-154.

Viney, K. A., Johnson, P., Tagaro, M. Fanai, S., Linh, N. N., Kelly, P., Harley, D. & Sleigh, A.         (2014). Tuberculosis patients’ knowledge and beliefs about tuberculosis: a mixed      methods study from the Pacific Island nation of Vanuatu. BioMed Central Journal of             Public Health, 14; 467-472.

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Re-Engineering Teaching Profession for Sustainable Development in Nigeria: Perspectives of Education Stakeholders

 

Constance Uzoamaka Nzeako1*, & Martha Nnamaka Onyekaba2

 

1School of General Education, Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe Anambra State

2Department of Educational Foundations, School of Education, Federal College of Education, Kano

* Corresponding Author: consynz@yahoo.com

 

Abstract

The issue of re-structuring teaching profession for sustainable development in Nigeria has often been a matter of serious concern to educationists, academics and the government. The study focused on what the stakeholders in education should do to re-engineer teaching profession to achieve sustainable development in Nigeria. It adopted a descriptive survey design. The population of the study comprised 40 respondents which was made up of 20 Senior Officers in the Ministry of Education and 20 Senior Officers in the Teachers’ Registration Council of Nigeria, Awka respectively. Out of this population, a sample of 20 respondents was used for the study. Their views were randomly sampled, using simple random sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was a structured 10- item questionnaire designed by the researchers and validated by experts in the Ministry of Education and Teachers Registration Council of Nigeria (TRCN). A 4 – point rating scale of Strongly Agree (SA), Agree(A), Disagree (D) and Strongly Disagree(SD) was used to measure the responses of the respondents, to ascertain their degree of approval or disapproval to the questionnaire items, which consisted of various statements on the topic under study. The data generated through the questionnaire were analyzed using Mean and Standard Deviation. The findings of the study showed that efforts are now being made to re-position teaching profession in Nigeria. For instance, there is a recent memo from (TRCN) that mandates teachers to write qualifying examination, before being registered as teachers, among others. Based on the findings of the study, the researchers recommended for a robust policy and due recognition of teaching profession in Nigeria.

Keywords: Re-engineering, Sustainable development, Teaching Profession

 

Introduction

The perception of teaching profession in Nigeria has been a matter of great concern to the well-meaning Nigerians. Some people regard teaching as a profession that requires skills and competences, while some view it as an occupation which anyone, both skilled and unskilled can delve into and make a living. In Nigeria, teaching cannot be likened to any other profession in terms of respect, prestige, economic status, autonomy and authority of its members. They are the wretch of the world and inheritance in heaven; as their rewards as the saying goes, are in celestial world, and not in the physical world. The Nigerian populace seems to be confused regarding the place of teaching. Observably, becoming a teacher in Nigeria, doesn’t exactly align with the prayers of most young Nigerians who seek God’s direction in their search for glamorous future occupation. This can be confirmed when you suggest teaching profession to an intending “JAMBITE”, you would almost certainly be rebuked for your unreasonable statement, with a fervent “God forbid” to ensure such absurd wishes never come to pass (Nimi, 2017).

According to Chukwuma (2016), teaching profession is that business of those involved in the act of changing human behaviour and transforming the society for better through impacting knowledge, skills, ideas and information to a learner. Teaching happens to be the oldest profession in Nigeria, but unfortunately, the least developed in terms of standard of training and practice. On the other hand, Odoand Amera, (2015) viewed sustainable development as the process of economic and social transformation that is based on complex cultural and environmental factors and their interactions. Several scholars have reviewed related literature on teaching profession in Nigeria and there seems to be consensus in most of their studies regarding people’s perception of teaching profession. Ajayi, in Akinduyo, (2014) posited that teaching profession since the ages, has been an occupation that enjoys the unpleasant nickname of an “ungrateful trade” a profession for the “never-do-well or an occupation for the down-trodden

Still commenting on the profession, Majasan in Akinduyo stated that Other members of the society regard teaching profession with contempt, feeling that it is a refuse camp for mediocre; people who are industrious but unimaginative and uncreative; people with average drive for power, average ambition and escapism.

Fundamentally, education remains a great instrument for socio-economic and technological development. There is therefore an urgent need to build a solid foundation for teaching profession through effective and efficient professional teachers (Edoka & Onyema, 2013). Teaching is the specialized application of knowledge, skills and attributes designed to provide unique service to meet the educational needs of the individual and the society at large. The choice of learning activities whereby the goals of education are realized in the school is the responsibility of the teaching profession (Ayodele, 2016).

Development on the other hand has several definitions from local to global perspectives. It can be viewed as a set of activities that are carried out early in the systems engineering life cycle to collect and prioritize operational needs and challenges, develop alternative concepts to meet the needs of the masses (Ebereonwu, 2014). Development, according to Ibegbu(2014) means ‘improvement in a country’s economic and social conditions through proper management and utilization of both

In the same vein, Ogundele (2001) opined that development refers to human resources growth, economic resources, improved skills and productivity of labour. Ayoka (2013) asserted that it is a catalytic process for social change that seeks to foster thorough education, training and public awareness on moral values, behavior and lifestyles, among others.

There is no doubt that teaching profession seems to be the only profession that hardly discriminates its forms of membership. This is evidenced as all sorts of people without professional training including school drop-outs are found in the classroom (Nwoke, . 2014). In fact, Ayodele (2016) posited that most teachers take the profession as a last resort without any genuine interest in the profession. Unlike during the advent of the missionaries when only the intelligent scholars were recruited and trained as teachers.

The defect of teaching profession is traced back to the colonial period; where credence was not given to qualification, but just the ability to work with directives without much demand for incentives and motivation (Adewumi, 2014). To the Colonial masters, teachers’ rewards are in heaven, notwithstanding that their roles in the society cannot be over-emphasized. Teachers have roles to play in the development of a nation especially, in raising leaders and intellects of tomorrow, who will sustain the nation’s economy (Nwoke, 2014). If the assertion that education of a nation cannot rise above the quality of its teachers, then the professional development of teachers becomes imperative for a sustainable national economic, scientific and technological development.

According to Edoka and Onyema (2013) many teachers in Nigeria have not measured up to the minimum international standard. This is because a large number of trained and half-baked personnel are still retained in the system, leading to a scenario in which career in teaching is not yet professionalized. Unfortunately, these crops of teachers cannot make any reasonable impact on both the character and skill development of their subjects; as one cannot give out what one does not have (Odo & Amera 2015).

Due to the fact that teaching profession is given less attention, many of the teachers engaged in business and other activities not relevant to their profession in the quest to meet up with the societal challenges. Some teachers are never prepared to update their knowledge of subject matter or pedagogy. Hence, teaching appears to have lost its grandeur and honour, and there is urgent need to invigorate and rejuvenate the teaching profession to achieve sustainable development in Nigeria (Edoka & Onyema 2013).However, there has been serious move to repositioning teaching profession in Nigeria. Recently, Teachers Registration Council of Nigeria (TRCN) released a memo that mandates teachers to write qualifying examination before being registered as teachers.

According to Onyeukwu (2015), the nature of teaching if left as it is now, cannot contribute effectively to the development of the nation. Teaching profession in Nigeria seems not to have been given its proper position, hence its role towards development may be a nightmare (Nwoke, 2014). Edoka and Onyema (2013) opined that the fundamental factors that account for inability of teaching to be regarded as a profession in Nigeria include negligence on the part of the government, lack of committed and qualified teachers, corruption, poor funding and remuneration of teachers, politicization of teaching profession among others.

There is hardly any profession in Nigeria that loses its members to other professions as teaching profession (Ibegbu, 2014). The societal value system which is materialistic tendency, ‘get-rich-quick’ has its own weight to bear upon the profession. This made teachers much prone to temptation to any life of opulence as they want to escape from the viscous circle of want (Ayodele, 2016).

 

Statement of the problem.

Teaching profession which is essentially service-oriented, is supposed to enjoy high status, but is denied the privileges, regard and respect. There are considerable debates about the causes, consequences and solutions to the inability of teaching profession contributing effectively to the development of the nation. Over the years, the governments have adopted some recommendable policies that would re-engineer teaching profession to make it a veritable tool of development. It is pathetic to note that the policies have not yielded positively, neither have they met the yearnings and aspirations of Nigerians towards development. This has become a socio-political, economic and educational discourse among scholars and academics.

This pathetic situation has raised serious issues on the anomalies in Nigerian socio-economic system that is inhibiting the contributions of teaching profession to achieving sustainable development in Nigeria. The present study therefore focused on what the stakeholders in education should do to re-engineer teaching profession for a sustainable development in the country.

One research question was formulated to guide the study. What are the steps to be taken by the stakeholders in education in Anambra State to re-engineer teaching profession to achieve sustainable development in Nigeria?

 

Method

The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population of the study comprised of 40 respondents which was made up of 20 Senior Officers in the Ministry of Education and 20 Senior Officers in the Teachers’ Registration Council of Nigeria, Awka respectively. A sample of 20 respondents was used for the study using simple random technique of balloting with replacement. This ensured that the respondents have equal chances of being selected. The instrument for data collection was a structured 10-item questionnaire designed by the researchers and face-validated by three experts from the Ministry of Education and TRCN respectively. Parallel reliability of the instrument was established by administering the validated instruments on 10 Senior Officers in the Ministry of Education and Teachers’ Registration Council of Nigeria (TRCN) respectively, in Enugu State. The values obtained were highly similar, showing the correlation of the test instrument. The researchers used two trained research assistants and employed face-to-face administration in the collection of data for the study. This gave the researchers and their team the opportunity to explain to the respondents the instruments and challenges that might arise in completing the questionnaire items. Consequently, 100% collection was recorded by the researchers.

The data collected was organized and completed in line the research question, using summative rating scale, otherwise called, ‘weighted mean.’ The mean values of the four responses were determined by dividing the summation of the frequency of responses with the summation of the scale used.

Mean value (X) = E fx/Ex

Where fx = total sum of scores

X= total number of rating scales

X=4+3+2+1=10

X=10/4=2.50.

 

Analysis of data was done using frequencies, mean and standard deviation. The cut-off point for decisions was 2.50 based on a 4-point rating scale. This means that any item with mean of 2.50 and above attracted positive response, while items with mean below 2.50 were regarded as having attracted negative responses.

Results

Table 1

Mean scores of Senior Officers of Ministry of Education and Teachers’ Registration Council of Nigeria (TRCN) Awka, Anambra State.

SNR OFFICERS IN MOE & SNR OFFICERS IN TRCN

S/N ITEM X   SD Decision X   SD Decision
1. Recognition of teaching    profession    and 3.70  0.70   Agree 3.68   0.69    Agree
  addressing the poor and deteriorated condition        
  of service of teachers        
2. Equipping teachers in the knowledge and skills 3.67    0.59   Agree 3.54  0.66    Agree
  through training, conferences, seminars, short       .
  term courses in professional programmes and        
  teaching practice        
3 Inculcating the patriotic spirit, respect  and 2.91   Agree 3.37   0.90    Agree
  regard for social order, culture of human        
  dignity, human right and value system        
4.

 

 

 

Identifying and managing stress among 2.61    0.90    Agree 2.72   0.86    Agree
  Teachers        
5. Ensuring quality, effective and efficient service 2.73   0.87    Agree 2.88   0.89    Agree
  in education system        
6. Strengthening the entry qualification of 3.37   0.93    Agree 3.56  0.40    Agree
  teaching profession and licensing by        
  appropriate professional bodies        
7. Non-involvement of teachers in corrupt 3.94   0.22    Agree 3.73  0.59   Agree
  practices through proper sensitization and        
  supervision to maintain ethical standard        
8. Integration of teachers in decision making, 3.55   0.36    Agree 3.54  0.35  Agree
  economic planning and education matters that    

 

 

 

   
  economic planning and education matters that        
  can foster development.        
9. Inculcating   discipline, dedication and hard 3.38 0.95  Agree 3.43  0.82  Agree
  work    through    entrepreneurial  and skill        
  acquisition among teachers        
10. Teaching profession should be well funded and 3.95 0.93 Agree 3.81  0.51 Agree
  remunerated.

 

       

 

           

Results in table 1 above show that all the item listed, recorded mean scores well above the decision rule of 2.50 This shows that the respondents agreed to all the items as being the measures to be taken in order to re-engineer teaching profession for sustainable development in Anambra State and Nigeria in general.

 

Discussion

The results in table 1 indicate that, in the opinions of the respondents, all the listed factors are such that could help to re-engineer teaching profession to achieve sustainable development in Nigeria. These findings are in line with the observations made by Chukwuma (2016),Ayodele (2016), Onyeukwu (2015), that the recognition of teaching profession and addressing the poor and deteriorated condition of service of teachers, equipping teachers in knowledge and skills through training, conferences, seminars, short term courses in professional programmes and teaching practice, inculcating the patriotic spirit, respect and regard for social order, culture of human dignity, human right and value system, were identified as various ways of re-engineering teaching profession .

Furthermore, the findings, ensuring quality, effective and efficient service in education system, strengthening the entry qualification of teaching qualification and licensing by appropriate professional bodies, support the opinions of Onyeukwu (2015),Odo and Amera, 2015) who opined that if the nature of teaching is left as it is now, it cannot contribute effectively to the development of the nation. Nwoke, (2014) further maintained that if teaching profession in Nigeria is not given its proper position, its role towards sustainable development maybe a nightmare.

The findings, on non-involvement of teachers in corrupt practices through proper sensitization and supervision to maintain ethical standard, integration of teachers in decision making, economic planning and education matters that can foster development, inculcating discipline, dedication and hard work through entrepreneurial and skill acquisition and finally proper funding and remuneration of teaching profession are in line with Edoka and Onyema (2013) who posit that the fundamental factors that account for inability of teaching to be regarded as a profession in Nigeria include negligence on the part of the government, lack of committed and qualified teachers, corruption, poor funding and remuneration of teachers, politicization of teaching profession among others.

 

Conclusion

This study examined the state of teaching profession in the country and how the profession can be re-engineered, for a sustainable development in the country. Since education brings a positive change in the life of individuals and the nation at large, it should therefore not be taken for granted. Hence, stakeholders in the education sector and the government should ensure that teaching profession is accorded its rightful position in the society, just like other professions. It is believed that this will help to re-engineer and re-invigorate teaching profession to enhance sustainable development in the country.

 

Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made:

  1. The government should address the poor condition of service of the teaching profession
    and ensure the right calibres of people are absorbed in the profession.
  2. The government should enforce Teachers’ Code of Conducts and ensure that erring teachers are disciplined, while dedicated ones are appreciated /rewarded
  3. The Teacher’s Registration Council of Nigeria (TRCN) should be strict with the qualifying examinations for teachers as a pre-requisite for entry into teaching profession, in order not to give room for unbaked and un-communicated teachers, who see the profession as a stepping stool.
  4. The government through the Ministry of Education should organize capacity-building workshop/training for teachers to enhance their professional development.
  5. The government and other stakeholders in education should accord respect and regard to teaching profession as done in other professions / counterparts. This will build confidence in teachers and ensure maximum input.
  6. Government should integrate teachers in decision-making and economic building
    plan as they are seen as epitome of knowledge, skills and wisdom and also involve them in all educational matters at various levels.
  7. Only those trained as teachers should be allowed to teach, in order to protect the
    sanity and pedagogical demands of teaching profession. – ,
  8. Government should ensure prompt payment of teachers’ salary, promotions and other remunerations.

 

References

Adewumi, B.T. (2014). Teaching profession and its challenges: Onitsha: Lincel publishers (pp 48-51 ).

Ayodele, A.O. (2016). Effective teaching profession: The ethical side. In Adeseye et al (Eds.),

Polytechnic education in Nigeria: Problems and prospects. Lagos: Bolufemi Enterprises.  (pp 268 – 291)

Ayoka, M.O. (2013). Teaching profession in Nigeria: Issues, problems and prospects. Ibadan:

Macmillian Nigeria Publishers.

Chukwuma, S.I (2016). Teaching profession for sustainable development. Downers Grove,

Illinois: IVP Academic.

Ebereonwu, L.C. (2014). Teaching and its implications for tourism development in Nigeria.

Onitsha: Macboth press. (pp 70 – 73)

Edoka, O.I. & Onyema, A. (2011). Problems and prospects of education in Nigeria. A paper presented at

the Nigerian Institute of Policy and Strategic Studies, Asaba, Delta State.

Federal Republic of Nigeria, (2014). National Policy on Education, (5th Edition), Lagos: NERDC Press.

Ibegbu, C.A. (2014). Professional ethics in teaching profession development. NASHER (National                Association for Science, Humanities and Education Research) Journal,3 (I), 1-11.

Lawal, A.A. (2012). Enhancing teacher education through culture of excellence in Adeseye et al

(Eds.), Polytechnic education in Nigeria: Problems and prospects. Lagos:

Bolufemi Enterprises. (pp.246-256)

Nwoke, G.O. (2014). Teaching staff quality and discipline in Nnoli, O &Sulaiman, I (Eds.),

Reassuring the future of teaching profession in Nigeria Abuja: Education

Tax Fund. (pp. 25-32).

Odo, K.U & Amera, E. (2015).Teaching profession for development in Nigeria, European Scientific            Journal, 8(l),34-38

Ogundele, S.O. (2001). Nigerian development crisis: A perspective on revolutionary             Education. International Journal of Research in Science and Education.         2(1) pp101-105

Onyeukwu, T.O (2015). The practice of teaching profession: Perspectives and strategies. Jos: Institute of Education, University of Jos. (pp. 360-370)

 

 

 

Accessibility of Antiretroviral Therapy Services by People Living with HIV and Aids in Benue State

 

Rachael O. Ameh1*, & E.S. Samuel2,

1Government Day Secondary School Wuse II, Abuja

2Department of Human kinetics and Health Education University of Nigeria, Nsukka

* Corresponding Author

 

Abstract

This study investigated access of people living with HIV and AIDS to Antiretroviral Therapy Services (ARTs) in Benue State. One objective with two corresponding research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. Cross-sectional survey research design was used. The population study consisted of 570,175 People Living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) in Benue State. A sample of 659 PLWHA was drawn using a multi-stage sampling procedure. Questionnaire and focus group discussion guide were used for data collection. The instruments were validated. Frequencies, percentages and Chi-square were used for data analysis. Findings revealed, among others, that 53.5 percent of PLWHA accessed ARTs. There was no significant difference in access based on gender and age. It was recommended, among others, that the State Government and health providers should organize and introduce home-based services and constantly organize ARTS mobile outreach services as well. This will meet the needs of those residing in the rural areas of the State.

Keywords: Accessibility, Antiretroviral Therapy Services, PLWHA

 

Introduction

Antiretroviral therapy services (ARTs) are necessary for the longevity and productive life of People Living positive with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). These services are expected to be accessed maximally to keep PLWHA alive and healthy. Accessibility of ART services globally pose a challenge to the health sector objective, which aims at achieving universal access to antiretroviral therapy services. Care Resource Audit-CRA (2013) observed that with antiretroviral therapy services people are still dying from HIV and AIDS; 1.5 million people died from HIV related causes in 2013. The CRA further posited that globally at the end of 2013, 35 million people were living with HIV and AIDS, only 12.9 million were receiving antiretroviral therapy services   and only one (1) out of four (4) children living with HIV globally had access to ART in 2013. Since the start of the epidemic, 78 million people have become infected and 35 million have died from AIDS related illness. However, 17 million people are currently receiving ART therapy services (UNIAIDS, 2015).  According to World Bank (2014) ART therapy coverage in Nigeria was 22 per cent in 2014; the ART coverage indicates the percentage of adults and children with advanced HIV infection currently receiving ART therapy. Ministry of health Makurdi (2014) also revealed that Benue State had 52 ART centres with an estimated population of over 507,175 people Living positive with HIV and AIDS receiving treatment in all the ART centres. Benue State is ranked ninth in the current HIV and AIDS prevalence rating in the country (Ameh, 2015). Duru (2016) stated that over 14,200 Benue youths are infected and currently living with the dreaded HIV and AIDS. The situations therefore require urgent attention which was to determine access to antiretroviral therapy to save the life of the PLWHA.

ART therapy services are very important for the survival of people living with HIV and AIDS in both developed and developing nations, including Nigeria. ART means treating retroviral infection like HIV virus with drugs. World Health Organization-WHO (2012) also defined antiretroviral therapy as drugs used in the treatment and prevention of HIV infection. ART fights HIV by stopping or interfering with the reproduction of the virus. However, when taken in combination they can prevent the growth of virus. ART therapy services are made up of counseling, testing, treatment and follow-up they are required to be accessed by PLWHA.

The standard treatment consist of a combination of at least three drugs often called “highly active antiretroviral therapy’’ (HAART) that suppress HIV replication. ART has the potential both to reduce mortality morbidity rate among HIV-infected people and to improve their quality of life (WHO, 2017).

ART indeed is a life saver for people living with HIV and AIDS. ART averted 5.5 million deaths in low-and middle- income countries from the peak in 1995 and until 2012 where ART reduced the risk of HIV transmission by up to 96 per cent. ART reduced the risk of tuberculosis infection among PLWHA by 65 per cent. HIV treatment is still not reaching enough children and the key population are the children, children younger than 15 years receiving ART rose from 566,00, in 2011 to 630, 000 in 2012 but the percentage increase was small, 11 per cent versus 21 per cent (WHO, 2013). ART keeps PLWHA productive and working age adults return to work earlier when they receive the treatment, boosting labour, productivity and reducing hardship among affected households. The work of ART is to keep the amount of HIV in the body at a low level and stop any weakening of the immune system and allow it to recover from any damage that HIV mighty have caused already. ART services further work to reduce HIV and AIDS incidence and prevalence and ensure that as far as possible PLWHA should remain alive and healthy.

To ensure effective access and utilization, each ART centre must provide all the components of ART therapy services. The components of ART include counseling, testing, treatment and follow-up (Chipindele& French, 2001; Creel & Perry, 2002). Counseling means helping someone with a personal problem or psychological matters which is usually given by a professional such as health workers. There are two types of counseling: pre-test and post-test counseling, including information about how one can protect him or herself from infection, information about the confidentiality of the results and clear easy to understand explanation of what the result mean. Post-test counseling includes clear communication about what one’s test results means. Testing services here refers to HIV screening to show if a person is infected with HIV virus or not. HIV test include antibody test, antigen test and PCR test (polymerase reaction test). When CD4 count (is confirmatory) test result indicate positive, treatment is promptly required (Web-Medical, 2013).

Treatment means provision of medications, the application of medical care to prevent the disease, heal injury or condition or medical remedy; produce or technique for curing or alleviating a disease, injury or condition, which in this case are HIV and AIDS (Avert, 2008). They are usually achieved by administering ART drugs. Follow-up services refer to those activities that facilitate patient retention in ART services. Ideally, these services should be accessible to every community to ensure maximum utilization in order to elevate pain and suffering of the PLWHA. Regrettably, accessibility of these services seems to be a great challenge which may adversely affect its utilization. ARTs seem to be poorly accessed by PLWHA in Benue State. This may have resulted to the observed increase of stigmatization, discrimination, separate ART centres geographical location, financial inability, people falling ill regularly, problem of transportation and accommodation; food expenditure, loss of time, non-disclosure of HIV status, and accessing ART services in a different location order than where the PLWHA reside among others. These challenges can directly or indirectly influence access negatively and also obstruct the treatment regimen programme.

Access refers to getting at something or approaching something to use. Access is defined as a means of approaching, the opportunity or right to receive health care (Medicine-Net, 2014). Access to health care means having the timely use of personal health services to achieve the best health outcomes. Attaining good access to care requires three discrete steps, getting entry into the health care system. Getting access to sites of care where patients can receive needed services and with whom patient can develop a relationship based on mutual communication and trust (Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality, 2011). Jeans-Frederic, Mark and Grant (2017) viewed access as the opportunity to identify healthcare needs, to seek healthcare services, to reach, to obtain or use health care services and to actually have a need for services fulfilled. They also identified five dimensions of accessibility, approachability, acceptability, availability and communication, affordability and appropriateness. In this framework, five corresponding abilities of populations interact with the dimension of accessibility to generate access. In this study access means to enter into health facility and make use of the ART services provided for PLWHA.

People living with HIV and AIDS are described as those infected with the HIV virus. World Health Organization, (2003) defined PLWHA as people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) the causative agent of the current incurable disease, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). AIDS is a human disease characterized by progressive destruction of the body’s immune system. It is widely accepted that AIDS results from infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).  In the context of this, PLWHA refers to people who are carrier of the HIV virus in Benue State. The rational for the choice of this group of people is because they are faced with health challenge that threatens their lives. People living with HIV and AIDS deserved expert and convenient ways to be treated, many of them may find it difficult to access and use these services due to some personal, social, geographical and economic reasons (America Psychological Association-APA, 2006).

Socio-demographic variables associated with accessibility of ART services include among others gender and age and others are set of independent variable (Ellis, 2004). Variable can be used to predict the value of another variable (Farlex, 2012). In this study, variable refers to factor that can determine or influence PLWHAs’ access to ART services in Benue State.  Literature revealed that despite the various efforts aimed at addressing the HIV and AIDS challenge, PLWHA in Benue State are still experiencing stigmatization and discrimination, the real situation concerning PLWHA accessing ARTS in the state was worrisome and justified the study. Therefore, the present study filled the existing gap.

 

Purpose of the study

The main purpose of the study was to determine the PLWHA’s access to ART services in Benue State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study determined the percentage of PLWHA who were accessing ART services in Benue State.

 

Research Questions

One research question guided the study which was:

  1. What proportion of PLWHA accessed ART services in Benue State?

 

Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance;

  1. There is no significant difference in the proportion of PLWHA accessing ART in Benue State based on gender.
  2. There is no significant difference in the proportion of PLWHA accessing ART in Benue State based on age.

 

Method

Design of the study: The cross-sectional research design was adopted to determine the accessibility of antiretroviral therapy services (ARTs) by people living with HIV and AIDS in Benue State. The study was carried out in the selected ART centres in the three senatorial zones of Benue State.

Area of the study: This study was conducted in Benue State Nigeria, located in the North-central zone of the country. Many people in Benue State at the moment practice prostitution and drunkenness, which encourage the preponderance of the dreaded disease HIV and AIDS. Other harmful practice unsterilized needles and unscreened blood which predispose people to sexually transmitted infections, including HIV and AIDS and its consequences. This is why effective use of and access to ART services are important. One is therefore compelled ask to:

Population of the study: The population for the study consisted of 507,175 registered people living with HIV and AIDS (Ministry of Health, 2014) in all ART centres in Benue State (State Ministry of Health, 2014). Currently over 700, 000 a People Living With HIV and AIDS are on antiretroviral drug (Eyoboka, Agbakwuru & Duru (2017). PLWHA stands for People Living with HIV and AIDS. They are boys, girls, men and women infected with HIV and AIDS. People Living with HIV and AIDS also refer to infants, children, adolescents and adults infected with HIV and AIDS (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2017).

Sample for the study: A purposive sample technique was used to select 659 people living with HIV and AIDS from the three senatorial zones consisting of 52 ART centres and 25 were selected for the study. Zone A comprises of (8) ART centres having two hundred and five PLWHA (205), zone B has (10) ART centres with (255) PLWHA, while zone C consisting of (7) ART centres having a total number one hundred and ninth nine PLWHA. The technique was adopted because only those who consented to participate in the study were used.

Instrument for Data Collection: Questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion Guide were used for data collection. It was validated by five experts in Health Education, Nursing and measurement and evaluation Croobach’s Alpha statistic was used to determine the reliability of the instrument which resulted in a reliability coefficient of .076.

Method of Data Collection: Six hundred and fifty-nine copies of the questionnaire were administered by the researcher and with the help of three health workers from the selected ART centres who served as research assistants. Out of this number, 651 copies were returned for data analysis of the study. The focus group discussion (FGD) was organized in the three zones and thematically discussed.

Method of Data Analysis: Frequencies and percentages were used to answer research question one while the null hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistic at .05 level of significance.

 

Results

Table 1

Frequency and Percentage of PLWHA Access ART Services (n=651)

 

ART Access Did Not Access
Services    f (%)   f (%)
Counseling

1.       Pre-counseling

555 (83.3) 96 (14.7)
2.       Post-counseling 147 (22.6) 504 (77.4)
3.       Group-counseling 498 (76.5) 153 (23.5)
4.       Ongoing-counseling 287 (44.1) 364 (55.9)
Overall (%)          57.1        422.9
Test

 

5.       Enzyme-linked immunosobent assay (ELIZA)

 

504 (77.4)

 

47 (22.6)

6.       Rapid HIV test 206 (31.6) 445 (68.4)
7.       Rapid saliva test 298 (46.8) 353 (52.2)
Overall (%)         51.6         48.4
Treatment

8.       Prevention of Mother-to-Child transmission

 

506 (77.7)

 

45 (22.3)

9.       Tuberculosis and HIV treatment 211 (32.4) 440 (68.4)
10.    HIV and care support 427 (65.6) 224 (34.4)
11.    Condom use 280 (43.0) 371 (57.0)
12.    Positive living 357 (54.8) 294 (45.2)
13.    Adherence to drug 321 (49.3) 330 (50.7)
Overall (%)         53.8         46.2
Follow-up

14.    Visit to ART centres by patients

 

478 (73.4)

 

173 (26.6)

15.    Visit to patients’ home by caregivers 229 (35.2) 422 (64.8)
16.    Adherence through technology based 362 (55.6) 289 (44.4)
17.    Use of visual aids to remind patients of drug 275 (42.2) 376 (57.8)
Overall (%)         51.6         48.4
Grand (%)         53.5         46.5

 

Table 1 shows the proportion of PLWHA accessed pre-counseling service as (85.3%), post-counseling service (22.6%)’ group counseling service (76.5%) and ongoing counseling service (44.1%) The table further indicates the proportion of PLWHA accessed as follows: ELIZA testing service (77.4%); rapid HIV test service (31.6%) and rapid saliva test (46.8%). The table also shows the proportion of PLWHA who accessed prevention of mother-to-child transmission-PMTCT service (77.7%); tuberculosis and HIV treatment service (32.4%); HIV and care support service (65.6%); condom use service (43.0%); positive living service (54.8);and adherence to drug service (49.3%). The table further indicates the proportion of PLWHA who accessed visit to ART centres by patients (73.4%); visit to patient’s home by caregivers’ service (35.2%), proportion of PLWHA who accessed (55.6%); adherence through technology based service; and use of visual aids to remind patients of their drugs (42.2%). The table further shows that overall slightly above one half (53.5%) of the PLWHA accessed ART services.

The data from FGD revealed that ART services were not easily accessible due to stigma and discrimination. They also mentioned that the follow-up process gives them sense of belonging and further promote positive living and enjoyment of normal life. They reported that care givers are not friendly while some are not, that they deserved to be treated with care and love like any patients in the health facilities. This implies that all stakeholders of Governments, Non-governmental organizations and Religious bodies should make conscious effort to encourage their members on the benefits of accessing ART services in order to ensure long and productive lives of the people living with HIV and AIDS.

 

Table 2

Chi-square () Testing the Null Hypothesis of no significant Difference in the Proportion of PLWHA ARTs Accessibility According to Socio-demographic variables

   ART 

   Services

              df          P-value
Counseling            2.027               1            .155
Testing            6.952               1            .000
Treatment              .278               1            .598
Follow-up              .962               1            .327
Overall            2.555               1            0.27

 

Table 2 shows the calculated value of 2.555 with the corresponding p-values of 0.27, which is greater than .05 level of significance at one degree of freedom. This implies that there was significance difference in the accessibility of ART services was the same according to gender. Since the  calculated value is greater than the P-value, then there is a significance difference. The null hypothesis is therefore rejected.

 

Table 3: Chi-square () Testing the Null Hypothesis of no Significance Difference in the Proportion of PLWHA ARTs Accessibility According to Socio-demographic variables

ART

Services

                               df            P-value
Counseling              .022                   2               989
Testing              .033                   2              .984
Treatment            3.464                   2               177
Follow-up              .772                   2               680
Overall            1.073 2            0.708

 

Table 3 shows that the calculated values of 1.073 with the corresponding p = values of .0708, which is greater than .05 level of significance at two degree of freedom. The  calculated value is greater than the P-value; there is a significance difference in the accessibility of ART services. The null hypothesis is rejected

 

Discussion

Finding in Table 1 indicated that the overall proportion of PLWHA who accessed ART services were 53.5 per cent. This finding was expected and therefore not surprising because PLWHA are expected to accessed ART services in order to maintain a healthy and productive life. This finding is in line with the report of World Bank (2014) which pointed out that ART therapy coverage in Nigeria was 22 per cent of adults and children with advanced HIV infection currently receiving ART therapy (Ministry of Health Markudi, 2014).

The finding in Table 2 revealed that there was no significant different in the accessibility of ARTs according to gender. This finding is in contrast to that of Kamau, Mwanz and Gikonyo (2006) who found that men had a significant advantage over women on access to ARVs.  However, the finding of this study disagree with that of Fred and Wilson (2004) who found that data from FGD revealed that female PLWHA has a higher proportion of accessibility to ARTs. This finding also disagrees with the finding of Kamau, Mwanz and Gikonyo (2006) who found that the numbers of females visiting ART clinics were twice that of males, and in the 18-26 years age bracket, females, were more affected by HIV and AIDS than males.  This finding agrees with the finding of Xuetaoe, Wen, Lawrence, Neora, Julio et al (2012) who maintained that gender and sexuality also affect access to and interaction with key health services for HIV prevention, treatment and care. In culture where there is a preference for sons, families allocate resources for health care to boys and men before girls and women within the same family. In many patriarchal cultures, women are confined to their home and cannot travel unless accompanied by a male member of the family. Many traditional practices also require that women are served exclusively by female health care providers and when only male health care providers are available, female patients must do without.

The finding corroborates with that of Derrick (2014) who observed that gender inequalities are strong driver of HIV and AIDS. Women and Girls tend to have unequal power in sexual relationships, economic decision-making and access to health information and services, all of which greatly influence their vulnerability to disease, traditional power dynamics among couples may undermine a women’s ability to receive ante natal care, including services to prevent mother to-child transmission services (PMTCT) when an expectant mother is HIV-positive.

This finding implies that although ART services was by majority of male and female PLWHA accessed but a slight difference still exist in the PLWHA accessibility of ART services according to gender in Benue State. The data in Table 2 also is in line with the finding of Natrass (2008) which posited that ‘masculinity factors’ accounts for the most of the difference between the men and women when it comes to accessing highly active ART. In this regard, Natrass further argued that the unequal burden of HIV and AIDS in African women, particularly young females in the 15-34 years group, is symbolic of the low and unequal status of women. The finding further agrees with the finding of Tromp, Michael, Mikkelsen, Hontelez and Baltussen (2014) who pointed out that men are likely than women to access ARTs. The implication of this finding is that ART access is requirement for all PLWHA to maintain healthy living and not for a particular sex; therefore, all PLWHA should be encourage with financial token and other incentives that will attract access and use of ART services.

The finding from focus group discussion (FGD) revealed that respondents (women) reported that their spouses did not like to access counseling services and this pose a great challenge to them because as they try to observe all the counseling and testing services but their spouses who never access counseling will always counter the process while few of the women said that their spouses were the cause of the illness and they should face the problem alone and provide drugs for them. The respondents further reported that counseling services was not easily accessible, because those whose status were not known within their location still exist like non-PLWHA  for fear of stigma and discrimination. Responses from FGD indicated that they like to be follow-up especially through their mobile phone to remind them drug intake, timing and appointment schedules to ensure adherence. They also mentioned that the fellow up process gives them sense of belonging and further promote positive living and enjoyment of normal life. They reported that some care givers are friendly while some are not, and that they deserved to be treated like any other patient in the health facilities.

The finding of no association of the accessibility of ART services by people living with HIV and AIDS in Benue State according to gender contrasted with that of the Kamau, Mwanz and Gikonyo (2006) in which the result showed that the number of females visiting ART clinics were twice that of males and in the 18-26 years age bracket, females were more affected by HIV and AIDS, than males. The finding showed that men had advantage over women on access to HIV, than male unlike the situation in the present study. However, the finding of this study disagree with that of Fred and Wilson (2004) who found that data from FGD revealed that female PLWHA had a higher proportion of accessibility of ARTs than male. However, there is need, therefore, to mount gender specific programme targeting both sexes, especially women because of their unique vulnerability, biologically, economically, and culturally to the scourge.

Data in Table 3 indicated no significant difference in PLWHA accessibility according to age. This finding disagrees with the finding of Kannan and Stanthini (2014) who revealed that age (p= .004) was significantly associated with accessibility. This finding was expected and therefore not surprising. This finding also is in line with the finding of Okoli (2009) who found the mean age of the respondents was 36 years and 46.7 per cent were within the age range of 30-41 years. Furthermore, the findings corroborate with the finding of Kannan and Santhini (2014) who revealed that HIV + patients in the age group of 36-46 and above were more likely to access ART services 4.3 and 31 times respectively compared to HIV + patients in 24-35 years age group. This finding corroborate with the finding of Care Resource Audit-CRA (2013) who found that only one (1) out of four (4) children living with HIV globally had access to ART in 2013. This finding agrees with the finding of Kim, Gerver, Fidler and Ward (2014) who found that despite adherence being critical in controlling viral transmission there are limited data on ART adherence among adolescents and young adults’ population.

This finding is in consonance with that of United Nation International Children Emergency Fund (2013) who noted that only one-third of children in need of life-saving ART drugs are receiving them. Evidence shows that early initiation of ART drugs in infants with HIV save lives. Yet coverage among children remains too low (twenty-three per cent in 2013). The finding also agrees with Abebe and Awoke (2014) they maintained that level of access and utilization of health services is lower in younger children and adolescents. This implies that across age groups, children especially need serious attention to access and utilize ART as strict adherence is key to sustained HIV suppression and improved overall health, quality of life; and survival, as well as decreased risk of HIV transmission. The implication of the finding is that the government and care givers should intensify effort to provide materials and enabling environment for easy access of ART and to pay special attention to the children. This implies that gender and age are significantly influence access to ART services.

 

Conclusion

About slightly one half of PLWHA accessed ART services. Majority of PLWHA males accessed ART services more than the females. There was no significant difference in the accessibility of ART services according to gender and age of PLWHA. Majority of PLWHA of various groups almost have the same proportion of accessibility of ART services according to age. Based on the findings, it is therefore concluded that disparity exist with gender and age among PLWHA accessing ART services particularly among children and adolescents, the State Government and health provider should pay serious attention to ensure that children and adolescents start their treatment as early as possible to reduce the spread of the disease.

 

Recommendation

Based on the findings, discussions and conclusions of the study, the following recommendations were made: It is recommended that should use spirited campaigns and create incentives for people to access ART services in the schools, churches, offices and market places. This can be done by using the radio, television and leaflets. Since ART access is a requirement for all PLWHA to maintain good health and productive life Benue State government should encourage PLWHA with financial token to augment their transportation cost that will attract access and use of ART services.

 

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MENOPAUSAL KNOWLEDGE AMONG IN-SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS IN NSUKKA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

 

  1. C. Igbokwe*, L. I. Abugu&, Peace C Ugwu

Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education,

University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

 

Abstract

The study determined menopausal knowledge among in-school adolescents in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu state. Cross sectional survey research design was employed. The population for the study consisted of all the 13,043 in-school adolescents in public secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu state. A sample of 388 adolescents drawn using Taro Yamane formula was used for the study. Multi stage sampling procedure was used to select the sample. The instrument used to collect data was researcher structured questionnaire titled Menopausal Knowledge Questionnaire (MKQ). Analysis was by the use of SPSS version 22. Frequencies and percentages were used to answer the research questions. Results showed that there is generally high level of menopausal knowledge (64.0%) among in-school adolescents in Nsukka Local Government Area, Enugu State. Respondents aged 20-24 years demonstrated higher knowledge (72.0%) followed by those aged 16-19 years (63.6%) while those aged 12-15 demonstrated the least knowledge (62.9%). Those in SSIII had higher knowledge (67.7%), followed by SSII (66.0%) while those in SSI had the least knowledge (61.9%). Following from the findings, the researchers recommended that information on all aspects of menopause including concepts, signs and symptoms and management should be given to in- school adolescents by their teachers (health educators) so as to increase their knowledge on menopause and position them to correct certain misconceptions on the subject matter.

 

Keywords: Menopause, in-school adolescents, knowledge

 

Introduction

Women in their lifecycle go through pre and post-menopausal phases. The timing of menopause, knowledge as well as menopausal symptoms varies between populations and within populations. In 1960, the world population of women aged over 60 was below 250 million, but it is estimated that in the year 2030, 1.2 billion will be peri or postmenopausal and that this total will increase by 4.7 million a year. The average woman in the developed world can now expect to spend approximately one third of her life in postmenopausal state (Malik, 2008). The author further reported that the western woman knowledge towards the menopause is generally high and about one third of them considers the menopause as ‘a normal physiological change’. Nevertheless, Nigerian women need knowledge about menopause in order to be able to cope with this important stage of their lives.

Menopause means the final menstrual period and represents a watershed in the reproductive life of a woman (Daine& Margaret, 2006). It is a natural event that every woman expects, occurring between the ages of 40 to 55 years, an average of 51 years in every woman. It is the permanent cessation of menstruation resulting from the loss of ovarian and follicular activity. Ekwuzie (2001) asserted that at menopause, a woman’s own oestrogen levels fall and the monthly period (menstruation) stops. Carlow (2006) observed that menopause is the time in a woman’s life at which she can no longer reproduce. Ekwuzie (2001) equally described that although it also ends fertility, you can stay healthy, vital and sexual. Some women feel relieved because they no longer need to worry about pregnancy. During this time, ovulation stops and oestrogen hormones drop. According to Chung (2009), menopause is a point in time and not a process; it is the time point at which a woman’s last period ends. A woman will not know when that time point has occurred until she has been 12 consecutive months without a period. The symptoms of menopause, on the other hand, may begin years before the actual menopause occurs and may persist for some years afterwards as well. While the menopause can sometimes be sudden events, for most women there is gradual change in menstrual pattern in the years preceding the menopause as ovarian activity fluctuates, which may be accompanied by troublesome symptoms; this is often called perimenopause.

Several signs and symptoms of menopause have been identified such as hot flushes, nervousness, irritability, depressive mood with occasional crying spells, headache, dizziness, anaemia, dryness of the vagina causing painful intercourse, pruritus (itching of the vulva), atrophy of reproductive organs, weight gain, scanty pubic hair, shrinkage of the breast (Daine& Margaret, 2006). Other signs and symptoms include fatigue and sleep problems, loss of bone mass that predisposes to osteoporosis, slow increase in blood cholesterol level that predispose to cardiovascular disorder (Huffma & Shriley, 2005; Ross &Willson, 2002; Delano, 2005; Dillaway, 2006; Restegari, 2007). Menopause is a highly individual experience. Symptoms vary between women from mild to severe; although some women may have no symptoms at all. In some women the symptoms last for less than one or two years, but other women have them longer.  The knowledge of the female reproductive system and the physiological changes that takes place in the body would however enable the woman to understand the change and be prepared to accept this period and tolerate the discomfort.

Knowledge is important to man’s quality of life because many of the things we do depends on the knowledge we have. Knowledge is familiarity, awareness or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, discovering or learning. It is the ideas and understanding which an entity possesses that are used to take effective actions to achieve the entity’s goal. Knowledge as defined by Crowther (2002) is all the information, fact, truth and principle learned throughout a given time. According to Noroozi, Kasiri, Eslami, Hassan and Davari (2013) appropriate understanding of women that certain physical, mental, social and psychological changes occur during menopause helps them with greater readiness to cope with these changes when they come. Familiarity with these changes and understanding their reasons are essential in the life of all women. Thus, menopausal knowledge in this study is the familiarity, awareness and understanding of the concept of menopause, its symptoms and management among in school adolescents.

Adolescent has been defined variously by many authors. Alan and Lauren (2003) described adolescent as a juvenile between the onset of puberty and maturity. According to United Nations Family Planning Association, (2007) and World Health Organization WHO (2005) an adolescent is a young person between 10 – 19 years with his/her views and evolving decision-making capacities. An adolescent is a young person who is no longer a child, but not yet an adult. Adolescent describes the teenage year between 13 and 19 and can be considered the transitional stage from childhood to adulthood (Lucile, 2013). In order words, adolescents do not mean age in years, but someone who is changing from a child to adult at any age. In –school adolescents in this study refer to those young persons between the ages of 12 and 24 years found in schools, mostly secondary schools. Certain factors such as age, class interval, location gender among others can however affect menopausal knowledge among adolescents. Age and class interval will be considered in this work.

Nsukka Local Government area (LGA) is one of the 17 LGAs in Enugu State, Nigeria. There are numerous public and private secondary schools where these in-school adolescents attend. In the LGA there are policies and programs for women’s health promotion but they are mostly focused on issues relating to pregnancy and family planning. Enough attention is not paid to other women’s health needs including the problems of menopausal transition period. Moreover, few studies have been carried out on the subject matter in the study area. Therefore, the need to study menopausal knowledge among in-school adolescent becomes timely. This is because knowledge acquired at early stage like adolescent stage will help them to be well equipped on the process of menopause so as to be able to cope with menopause in future and inculcate same to others when necessary. The purpose of the study therefore was to find out the menopausal knowledge among in-school adolescents in Nsukka LGA of Enugu state, Nigeria. To achieve this purpose, three research questions were posed thus;

  1. What is the level of knowledge possessed by in-school adolescents on the concept of menopause in Nsukka Local Government Area?
  2. What is the menopausal knowledge among in-school adolescents in Nsukka Local Government Area based on age?
  3. What is menopausal knowledge among in-school adolescents in Nsukka Local Government Area based on class interval?

 

 

Method

To achieve the objective of the study, the cross-sectional survey research design was employed. The population for the study consisted of all in-school adolescents in public secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu state. The total population of in-school adolescent in secondary schools in Nsukka LGA of Enugu State during 2016/2017 academic year was thirteen thousand and forty-three (13,043) (Post-Primary School Management Board – PPBMB Nsukka, 2017). A sample of 388 in-school adolescents was chosen for the study. This sample size was determined using Yaro Yamen formula for sample size determination for finite population. Multi stage sampling procedure was used to select the sample. First stage involved the use of simple random sampling to select two schools – boy’s and girls’ schools respectively.  Second stage is by the use of purposive sampling to select senior secondary school students, SS1-SS3.  This is because they are the ones that may have been exposed to more in depth lessons on reproductive processes including menopause. The third stage involved the use of systematic random sampling to select 65 students from each of the three sampled classes (SS1-SS3) in the two schools. This procedure yielded a total of 390 in-school adolescents used for the study.

The instrument used to collect data was researcher’ structured questionnaire titled Menopausal Knowledge Questionnaire (MKQ). The MKQ consist of two sections A and B. Section A sought information on respondents’ bio data while section B elicited information on respondents’ knowledge of menopause. The instrument was face validated by three experts from Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Data were collected by the researchers and two research assistants. Of the 390 questionnaires distributed, 378 were completely filled and used for analysis. Analysis was by the use of SPSS version 22. Frequencies and percentages were used to answer the research questions. In determining the menopausal knowledge, Ashur’s (1977) modified by Okafor (1997) criteria for determining knowledge was used. By these criteria, scores below 20 per cent was considered very low level of knowledge (VLK), 20-39 per cent was considered low level of knowledge (LK), 40-59 per cent was considered average level of knowledge (AK), 60-80 per cent was considered high level of knowledge (HK) while a score above 80 per cent was considered very high level of knowledge (VHK).

 

Results

 

Table 1

Level of knowledge possessed by in-school adolescents on the concept of menopause in Nsukka Local Government Area (n = 378)

  S/N                    Statement Correct Responses
F (%) D
1.      Menopause is the cessation of normal menstrual flow 259 68.5 H
2.      Menopause is a natural phenomenon that occurs only to women (35 – 55 years) 259 68.5 H
3.      Menopause is caused by witchcraft attack, enemies and illness 289 76.5 H
4.      Menopause occur due to decreased functioning of the ovary 239 63.2 H
5.      Natural menopause is a part of ageing process 297 78.6 H
6.      Regular menstruation and hot flushes indicate the onset of menopause 187 49.5 M
7.      Menopause is characterized by insomnia headache and irregular heart beat 139 36.8 L
8.      Menopausal women cannot give birth to new born 267 70.6 H
           Overall knowledge   64.0 H

 

Table 1 above show that in school adolescents has high menopausal knowledge (64.0%). However, the table further shows that there is low knowledge that menopause is characterized by insomnia, headache and irregular heart beat (36.8%) and moderate knowledge that regular menstruation and hot flushes indicate onset of menopause (49.5%).

 

 

Table 2

Menopausal knowledge based on Age

 

    S/N    Statement Correct Responses
12 – 15 yrs

  (N=136)                                      

16 – 19 yrs

  (N=213)

20 – 24 yrs

  (N=29)

F      %   F %   F %  
1.       Menopause is the cessation of normal menstrual flow 98 (72.0)   140(65.7)   21(72.4)  
2.       Menopause is a natural phenomenon that occurs only to women (35 – 55 years) 90 (66.2)   144(67.6)   25(86.2)  
3.       Menopause is caused by witchcraft attack, enemies and illness 102 (75.0)   164(77.0)   23(79.3)  
4.        occur due to decreased functioning of the ovary 84 (61.8)   131(61.5)   24(82.8)  
5.       Natural menopause is a part of ageing process 102 (75.0)   171(80.3)   24(82.8)  
6.       Regular menstruation and hot flushes indicate the onset of menopause 65(47.8)   107(50.2)   15(51.7)  
7.       Menopause is characterized by insomnia headache and irregular heart beat 48(35.3)   79(37.1)   12(41.4)  
8.       Menopausal women cannot give birth to new born 96(70.5)   148(69.5)   23(79.3)  

 

         Overall knowledge    (62.9)         (63.6)      (72.0)  

 

Table 2 reveals that all the age groups have high menopausal knowledge. However, those aged 20-24 years had the highest knowledge (72.0%), followed by those aged 16-19 years (63.6%). Respondents aged 12-15 years had the least menopausal knowledge (62.9%).

 

Table 3

Menopausal knowledge based on class interval  

 S/N             Statement Correct Responses
SSI(n=192) SSII(n=162) SSIII(n=24)
F      %   F %   F%  
1.      Menopause is the cessation of normal menstrual flow 131(68.2)   109(67.2)   19(79.2)  
2.      Menopause is a natural phenomenon that occurs only to women (35 – 55 years) 124(64.6)   119(73.5)   16(66.7)  
3.      Menopause is caused by witchcraft attack, enemies and illness 146(76.0)   124(76.5)   19(79.2)  
4.      Menopause occur due to decreased functioning of the ovary 115(59.9)   111(68.5)   13(54.2)  
5.      Natural menopause is a part of ageing process 146(76.0)   130(80.2)   21(87.5)  
6.      Regular menstruation and hot flushes indicate the onset of menopause 86(44.8)   88(54.3)   13(54.2)  
7.      Menopause is characterized by insomnia headache and irregular heart beat 71(37.0)   55(34.0)   13(54.2)  
8.      Menopausal women cannot give birth to new born 132(68.8)   119(73.5)   16(66.7)  
           Overall knowledge (61.9)   (66.0)   (67.7)  

 

Table 3 revealed that all the class levels have high menopausal knowledge. The table further shows that adolescents in SSIII had the highest knowledge (67.7%). This is followed by respondents in SSII (66.0%) and the least knowledge was among those in SSI (61.9%).

 

 

 

 

Discussion

This research study is focused to determine the overall menopausal knowledge among in-school adolescents in Nsukka Local Government Area, Enugu State. The findings in table 1 showed that there is generally high level of menopausal knowledge (64.0%) among in-school adolescents in Nsukka Local Government Area, Enugu State. This finding is expected because in school adolescents should have been exposed to reproductive functioning and anatomy and physiology of reproductive system of females which include menopause. The finding is in consonance with the report of Uzondu (2001) and Madubuogu (2004), who reported high level of menopausal knowledge among women. However, the table further shows that there is low knowledge that menopause is characterized by insomnia, headache and irregular heart beat (36.8%) and moderate knowledge that regular menstruation and hot flushes indicate onset of menopause (49.5%). This finding indicates that although these adolescents have high knowledge of the concept of menopause, they do not know much about the signs and symptoms of menopause. This finding supports that of Nisar (2008) who reported that majority of women and young girls lacked knowledge of menopausal symptoms and its health implications. The implication of this finding is that there is need to inculcate in these young ones the signs and symptoms of menopause at this stage in their development so that they should be able to grow with it and manage menopause appropriately when they reach that age.

Findings from Table 2 showed that respondents aged 20-24 years had the highest knowledge (72.0%), followed by those aged 16-19 years (63.6%). Respondents aged 12-15 years had the least menopausal knowledge (62.9%). This finding expected and not surprising. It is expected that older adolescents should possess higher menopausal knowledge than younger ones because they should possess better life experiences including menopause. Ejifugha, (2003) asserted that age brings about maturity and maturity put one in a position to rationalize, concretize accept or reject concept, information habit, attitude and practice. In line with the above assertion, older adolescents aged 20-24 years should possess higher menopausal knowledge than younger ones aged 12-15 years. This suggests that the information on menopause should be ongoing not just one-shot process.

Table 3 showed that respondents in SSIII had the highest knowledge (67.7%). This is followed by respondents in SSII (66.0%) and the least knowledge was among those in SSI (61.9%). This finding is plausible and expected. This is because, adolescents in SSIII are expected to be knowledgeable in female reproductive processes including menopause. This finding is in line with the finding by Uzondu, (2001) who reported in his study that there is close connection between class interval and menopausal knowledge. The higher the class level, the higher the menopausal knowledge. Moreover, respondents in SSS3 are in their external exam class and are expected to be conversant with the biology of female reproductive system including menopause.

 

Conclusion

Based on the findings and discussion of the present study, it was concluded that in-school adolescents in Nsukka LGA of Enugu state have high menopausal knowledge on the concept of menopause but low knowledge on the signs and symptoms of menopause. The level of menopausal knowledge was highest among in-school adolescents aged 20-24 years and those in SSIII.

 

Recommendations

Based on the findings, discussion and conclusion of the study, the following recommendations are made;

  1. Information on all aspects of menopause including concepts, signs and symptoms and management should be given to in- school adolescents by their teachers (health educators) so as to increase their knowledge on menopause and position them to correct certain misconceptions on the subject matter.
  2. Health educators should educate all females in the community both in school and out of school adolescents on different aspects of the female reproductive processes including menopause. This is to improve the general knowledge on menopause and position them to adapt and cope appropriately with menopausal syndrome.

 

 

References

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Carlow, T., (2006). Family planning methods and practice (2nd ed.). Africa.

Chung, G., Dieramena, R., Quispe, M. &Reynaga, U. (2009). Menopause and its implication for educational policy in Peru, Retrieved from www.womeneducationpolicyresearch/peru.

Crowther, J. (2002). Oxford advanced learner dictionary of current English. New York: Oxford University Press.

Daine, M. F. & Margaret, A .C. (2006). Myles text book of Midwives (14 ed.). London Chuchill Livingstone Edinburgh.

Delano, A. F. (2005). Guide to family planning and reproductive health, Lagos: Academy Press Limited.

Dillaway, H. E. (2006). When does menopause occur, and how long does it last? Wresting with age and time-based conceptualization of reproductive aging. NWSA Journal, 18(1),31.

Ejifugha, A.U. (2003). Fundamental of research in health education. Owerri: Barlon publishers.

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Huffma, Shriley, B., Myers, Jane, Tingle, Lynne, Rhond&Lioyd, A. (2005). Menopause symptoms and attitude of African women. Closing the knowledge gap and expanding opportunities for counselling. Journal of counselling and development,83(1), 48.

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Demographic Determinants of Risky Sexual Behaviours

Among In-School Adolescents in Wukari Local Government Area, Taraba State Nigeria

 

Blessing Edward Sa’aku1*& E.S. Samuel2

1,2 Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

* Corresponding Author:

 

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to investigate the demographic determinants of risky sexual behaviour among in-school adolescents in Wukari LGA, Taraba State, Nigeria. Three research questions were formulated. Cross sectional design was adopted. 345 subjects were randomly sampled using Taro Yamane formula with multi-stage sampling procedure from 3044 population of in-school adolescents in government owned Secondary Schools in Wukari LGA. The reliability coefficient of the questionnaire (DDRSBISAQ) was 0.73, determined through Cronbach Alpha statistic. Quantitative data from 345 copies of completed DDRSBISAQ were collected and analysed. The completed data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) batch system version 21. Socio- demographic characteristics were analysed using Frequency and percentage, while research questions 1-3 were answered using Chi-square. Findings of the study indicated that the proportion of in-school adolescents who engaged in risky sexual behaviour such as early sexual initiation, possession of multiple sexual partners and having sex under intoxication is 2.78%. The findings further revealed that majority (84.48%) of in-school adolescents claimed they had never engaged inin risky sexual behaviours. There was significant relationship between age (p-value 0.050) and in-school adolescents ‘sexual behaviours, while there was no significant relationship between gender (p-value 0.402) and sexual behaviours of the respondents. The study recommended among others that curriculum planners and developers should consider the findings of this study when planning curriculum for both JSS and SS students putting into consideration the variation in age and gender.

 

Keywords: Risky sexual behaviour, components of RSB, demographic determinants of RSB, in-school adolescents

 

Introduction

Risky sexual behaviour among in-school adolescents is a major public health problem worldwide. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA, 2004) pointed that sexual activity among young unmarried people worldwide is on the increase. The consequence of risky sexual behaviour is that it increases the likelihood of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs), precipitates teen unwanted pregnancy and low self-esteem. In addition, adolescents’ brain structures are less developed and less well equipped to make rational judgments on complex sexual relationships, thereby predisposing them to heightened risk (Gardener, Steinberg & Peer, 2005).  For these reasons, the United Nations Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF, 2011) highlighted youth’s vulnerability to unplanned pregnancy, STIs, unsafe abortions and called for a better understanding of the factors that increase the risky sexual behaviour with the intention to come up with better interventions to mitigate these behaviours.

Literature revealed that young people are sexually active and are at high risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. Manju and Lule (2004) observed that involvement in risky sexual behaviours including the early transition to sexual activity and unprotected sex makes adolescents to be particularly vulnerable STIs including HIV/ AIDS, as well as unplanned and unwanted pregnancies, abortions, and the complications of early childbearing.

Sexual behaviours are things we do with others like kissing, erotic touch, intercourse, oral sex, anal sex and manual sexual stimulation (Robinson, 1999). Sexual behaviour is an individual’s ability to experience or express sexual feeling, (Abah & Echodu, 2004). Sexual behaviour in this study refers to demonstration sexual of urge, seeking pleasure, sexual actions and reactions related to pleasure seeking. Sexual behaviour could be healthy or risky. Any romantic and pleasurable act or coitus that increases the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections or becoming pregnant is a risky sexual behaviour.

Risky sexual behaviour refers to any pleasurable coital activity that increases the risk of contracting STIs or becoming pregnant. Risky sexual behaviours are activities that involve sex which end with consequences that negatively affects in-school adolescents’ health. Example of risky sexual behaviour includes having first sex before 16 years, inconsistent condom use and having multiple sexual partners. Many in-school adolescents indulge in risky sexual behaviours especially unprotected sex and having multiple sexual partners among others.

Forms or components of risky sexual behaviours are oral sex, anal sex, sex under intoxication, transactional or survival sex, unprotected sex, and multiple sexual partners. These behaviours are associated with serious and detrimental outcomes such as unwanted and unplanned pregnancy, STIs, including HIV/AIDS and sometimes infertility for life.  In the context of this study, risky sexual behaviour refers to sexual actions which may involve coitus or intercourse that may result to adverse health outcomes among in-school adolescents.

Many adolescents, in-school adolescents inclusive engage in some forms of sexual behaviours other than vaginal intercourse. For example, between 2007 and 2010, 11 per cent of male adolescents and 13 per-cent of female adolescents reported that they had engaged in anal sex with someone of the opposite sex, (Copen, Chandra & Martinez, 2012).

Unprotected vaginal-penile intercourse has been known to be the predominant route for HIV and STIs transmission. However, it is becoming evident that youth are involved in oral and anal intercourse (Markham, Peskin, Addy, Baumer & Tortolero, 2009).  Lindberg, Jones and Santelli (2008) opined that although the oral and anal sex behaviours of adolescents have been researched in the United States (US) for more than two decades, Kazaura and Masatu (2009) submitted that it was only recently that research evidence in some parts of Africa revealed the practice of oral and anal sex. Following from the above, a study to determine the proportion of in- school adolescents engaged in risky sexual behaviours (RSBs) was carried out in Wukari LGA of Taraba State.

Demographic determinants or variables are characteristics in a population distribution which are capable of changing or causing changes in a study. They could be gender, location, educational level, age and religion. Demography in this study refers to characteristics of in-school adolescents which can determine risky sexual behaviours of in-school adolescents.

National Adolescent Health Policy (2008) in Nigeria defines adolescents as individuals between the ages of 11 and 24 years.  Okoro (2002) posited that adolescent is a person who is in the transition to acquire biological features peculiar to the adult group.  Adolescent is a person who is within the period of transition from childhood to adulthood and the adolescent age range fall between the ages of 10 and 19 years (Nwoarali, 2004).  In this study, adolescent refers to a person who is within the period of transition from childhood to adulthood with age range between 10 and 19 years. Adolescents’ characteristics are capable of determining or influencing their risky sexual behaviours.

Determinants refer to factors that influence an adolescent into activities that have adverse consequences that are detrimental to health. In this work, determinants and factors will be used interchangeably. Determinants are considered as factors that can affect the behaviour and development of an individual. It is the forces and conditions that surround and influence living and non-living things (Sills, 2009). Determinants of risky sexual behaviour are influences, factors or indices that influence an adolescent into sexual activities that can have resultant harmful effect on health. These variables can influence risky sexual behaviour among in-school adolescents. They are gender, location, educational level, age and religious affiliations.

Age, gender and location are also strong demographic determining factors in risky sexual behaviour among in-school adolescents. For instance, Doyle, Mavedzenge, Plummer and Ross (2012) submitted that high proportions of adolescents between the ages of 15–19 years in Sub-Saharan Africa are increasingly sexually active and at higher risk of contracting STIs. They further pointed out that this is because risky sexual behaviour, including sexual intercourse before the age of 15 years, multiple sexual partners and sex without condoms, are now rife among adolescents and disproportionately higher in rural areas. Overall, these risky sexual behaviours are predominantly higher in boys compared to girls of the same age, partly because of the high level of testosterone in boys, which increases early disposition to sexual activities. For example, a Behavioural Health Survey Study (BHSS) among the in-school-going adolescents in eight selected African countries, it was found that 38.1per cent of boys, compared to 15.8 per cent of girls, reported sexual activities before the age of 15 years (Peltzer, 2010). This shows that boys are more involved in early sexual debut than girls.

It is expected that in-school adolescents are adequately trained, not supposed to indulge in premarital and early sexual debut. Regrettably, it has been observed that in-school adolescents in Wukari LGA indulge in risky sexual behaviour such as early sexual initiation, unprotected vaginal sex, possession of multiple sexual partners, among others which the resultant consequences are detrimental to their health. This risky sexual behaviour evident among in-school adolescents has far reaching implications for individual adolescent’s health, families, communities and government. Therefore, the researcher sought to find out the demographic factors (age, gender, location, and level of education) that are associated with risky sexual behaviours among in-school adolescents in Wukari LGA.

The purpose of this study was to find out the demographic determinants of risky sexual behaviour among in-school adolescents in Wukari LGA of Taraba State. Specifically, the study sought to answer the following research questions

 

  1. What is the proportion of in-school adolescents who practise risky sexual behaviour in Wukari LGA?
  2. What is the relationship of age of in-school adolescents and their risky sexual behaviour in Wukari LGA?
  3. What is the relationship between gender of in-school adolescents and their risky sexual behaviour among in Wukari LGA?

 

Method

The study employed cross-sectional research design. The population for the study consisted of all in-school adolescents in government owned secondary schools in Wukari LGA totalling 3044. The sample for the study was 345 students derived using Taro Yamane formula. The multi-stage sampling procedure was employed to draw the sample for the study. In the first stage, simple random sampling technique of balloting without replacement was used to select 5 secondary schools that were used for the study. In the second stage, stratified random sampling technique was used to select classes, three senior secondary classes (SSS 2) and two junior secondary classes (JSS 2. The students are in mixed/co-education schools. The fourth stage involves use of systematic random sampling technique to draw the required numbers of boys and girls that were representative from the selected classes using class register which produced a total of 162 females and 183 males, totalling 345 numbers of the sample size. For the adolescent males from each of the 10 randomly selected classes, seven classes contain 18 numbers of adolescent males each, while three classes have 19 numbers of males, giving a total of 183 in-school adolescents’ males drawn from urban and rural secondary (senior and junior) schools as a representative sample. Adding 162 females to 183 males totalling 345 sample sizes, drawn for the study.

The instrument for data collection was the researcher-constructed questionnaire called Demographic Determinants of Risky Sexual Behaviour among In-School Adolescents Questionnaire referred to as DDRSBISAQ. The questionnaire contained fifteen items grouped in sections A and B covering socio-demographic characteristics and components of risky sexual behaviours, structured questions of polychotomous that were interpreted as follows: 4 as always, 3 as sometimes, 2 as rarely and 1 as never. Face validity of the instrument was established by five experts, all from Department of Human Kinetics, Health and Education, in University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Reliability of the instrument was also determined using Cronbach Alpha statistic which gave a value of 0.73. The instrument which was administered by the researcher and some assistants were collected on the spot and examined for completeness of responses and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) batch system version 21. Frequency and percentages were used to answer the research question one while research questions 2-4 were answered using chi-square.

 

 

 

Results

Table 1

Percentage of the Respondents by their Socio-Demographic Characteristics

S/N Characteristics    
    f %
1 Gender

Male

Female

Total

 

183

162

345

 

53.0

47.0

100.0

2 Age

11-13

14-16

17-19

Total

 

64

72

209

345

 

18.6

20.9

60.0

100.0

 

Table 1 shows that out of 345 respondents, 183 (53.0%) were males, while 162 (47.0%) were females. On age, 64 (18.6%) aged between 11 – 13 years, 72 (20.9%) aged between 14 – 16 years while 209 (60.67%) aged between 17- 19 years.

 

Table 2

Proportion of In-school Adolescents who engaged in Risky Sexual Behaviour (345)

S/N Items   Always Sometimes

 

    Rarely

 

    Never

 

       
f          %  f            % f         %  f             %
  Risky Sexual Behaviour        
Early sexual initiation/ activity 9         2.6 25         7.2 18      5.2 293    84.9
Oral sex 5        1.4 19         5.5 11      3.2 310     89.9
Anal Sex 5         1.4 14          4.1 13      3.8 313     90.7
  Cluster Percentage            1.8             5.6         4.0            88.5
   

Possession of multiple sexual partners

       
Having sex with more than two people at a time or separately  

5         1.4

 

17.       4.9

 

9        2.6

 

314    91.0

Sex with a person who have other sexual partners  

9        2.6

 

20        5.8

 

20      5.8

 

296     85.8

  Cluster percentage           2                      5.4           4.2            88.4
  Sex under intoxication        
Drink alcohol to stimulate Libido 7          2.0 14         4.1 14      4:1 310     89.9
Having sex when drink 2           .6 2.5        7.2 7        2.0 311     90.1
Sex under the influence of other drugs 2           .6 20          5.8 8        2.3 315     91.3
  Cluster percentage            1.2 5.7           2.8            90.4
   

Unprotected sex 

       
Use of condom during sex 34        9.9 24          7.0 11      3.2 276    80.0
Consistent use of condom 29        8.4 27         7.8 17      4.9 272    78.8
Use of preventive like oral pills, injectable or LUCD  

11        3.2

 

20          5.8

 

12      3.5

 

302     87.5

Unsafe sex without condom if partner insist  

11        3.2

 

28          8.1

 

15      4.3

 

291     84.3

Resist sex despite the urge 10 0     29.0 29          8.4 13      3.8 203     58.8
Engage in selling sex 12       3.5 13          3.8 2         .6 318    92.2
Casual sex with regular partner 12        3.5 21          6.1 11      3.2 301    87.2
Engage in homosexuality 6          1.7 16          4.6 12      3.5 311     90.1
  Cluster percentage             7.8                 6.4            3.3             51.5
   

Transactional or survival sex

       
Having sex in exchange of gift/favour like,        
  Money 8          2.3 23        6.7 10      2.9 304     88.1
  Clothes 8         2.3 15       4.3 10     2.9 312     90.4
  Accommodation 5          1.4 10        2.9 8        2.3 322     93.3
  Food 5          1.4 12         3.5 11     3.2 317     91.9
  Admission 7         2.0 6          1.7 8        2.3 324     93.9
  Marks 8         2.3 11        3.2 9       2.6 317     91.9
  Cluster percentage          1.9             3.7          2.7            91.5
   

Oral sex

       
Romance or suck the penis or vagina 10        2.9 25         7.2 6       1.7 304     88.1
  Cluster percentage             2.9               7.2          1.7            88.1
   

Anal sex

       
Romance or putting the penis into the anus  

7         2.0

 

12         3.5

 

5        1.4

 

321      93.0

  Cluster percentage             2.0              3.5           1.4             93.0

                                  Overall Cluster % Total                            2.78              5.35       2.87         84.48                                                                                         

 

Data in Table 2 shows the proportion of in-school adolescents who engaged in risky sexual behaviour was 2.78%.

 

Table 3

Relationship between Age and Risky Sexual Behaviour (n = 345)

S/N Sexual Behaviour Always Sometimes Rarely Never
  f          % f             % f             % f           %
  Risky Sexual Behaviour –           – 0            0.0 11         17.2 53       82.8
  11 – 13 –           – 0            0.0 2           2.8 70       97.2
  14 – 16 –           – 1            0.5 14         6.7 194     92.8
  17 – 19

Cluster percentage

            –                                0.1                         68.9                      89.2

= 11.318, d.f = 4, p – valve = .023 (Relationship)

Possession of Multiple Sexual Partners  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  11 – 13 3        4.7 7           10.9 1           17.2 43        67.2
  14 – 16 1        1.4 1           1.4 8           11.1 62        86.1
  17 – 9

Cluster percentage                                                                                                        

4        1.9

          2.66

4           7.9

             6.7                                                                                                              

19         9.1

           12.46     

182       87.1

             80.1

     = 19.918, d.f = 6, p – value = .003 (Relationship)
Having Sex Under Intoxication        
  11 – 13 0         0.0 7           10.9 11         17.2 46         71.9
  14 – 16 0         0.0 2            2.8 3           4.2 67         93.1
  17 – 19 1         0.5 5            2.4 13          6.2 190       90.9
  Cluster percentage                                                                      0.16                            5.3                          9.2                          85.3

= 21.227, d.f = 6, p- value = .002 (Relationship)

Unprotected Sex        
  11 – 13 2         3.1 3            4.7 23          35.9 36         56.3
  14 – 16 0         0.0 4            5.6 15          20.8 53         73.6
  17 – 19 1         0.5 12          5.7 25          12.0 171       81.8
  Cluster percentage 3.6                                       5.3                            22.9                     70.56

= 24.878, d. f = 6, p – value = .000 (Relationship)

Transactional/Survival Sex        
  11 – 12 0           0.0 3           4.7 8           12.5 53         82.8
  14 – 16 0           0.0 1           1.4 2            2.8 69         95.8
  17 – 19 3           1.4 6           2.9 18          8.6 182       87.1
  Cluster percentage              0.46                       3.0                            7.96                       88.56

= 8.049, d.f = 6, p- value = .235 (Relationship)

Oral Sex        
  11 – 13 4             6.3 8               12.5 2               3.1 50           78.1
  14 – 16 4             5.6 4                5.6 0               0.0 64           88.9
  17 – 19 2             1.0 13              6.2 4               1.9 190         90.9
  Cluster percentage                 4.3                                         8.1                            1.66      85.96

= 12.888, d.f = 6, p- value = .045 ( Relationship)

Anal Sex        
  11 – 13 4             6.3 4               6.3 1                1.6 55          85.9
  14 – 16 1             1.4 1               1.4 2                2.8 68          94.4
  17 – 19 2              1.0 7               3.3 2                1.0 198        94.7
  Cluster percentage                 2.9                           3.66                         1.8                   91.66
  Overall Cluster % Total

 

(P- value 0.050)
   

 

 = 10.935, d. f = 6, p-value = .044 (significant)

 

Table 3 shows that there is relationship between age and risky sexual behaviour: sexual behaviour ( = 11.318, p- value = .023), possession of multiple sexual partners ( = 19.918, p – value = .003),  having sex under intoxication (= 21.227, p – value = .002), unprotected sex ( = 24.878, p – value  = .000), oral sex ( = 12.888, p – value = .045), and anal sex ( = 10.935, p – value = .090),  since the p – values are less than .05 level of significance at six degrees of freedom. The Table also reveals no relationship between age and transactional/survival sex ( = 8.049, p – value = .235), since the p – value is greater than .05 level of significance at six degrees of freedom.

 

Table 4

Relationship between Gender and Risky Sexual Behaviour (N = 345)

S/N Gender and Sexual Behaviour Always Sometimes    Rarely      Never
  f               % f               % f             % f               %
  Risky Sexual Behaviour –               – 0              0.0 20          10.9 163        89.1
  Male –               – 1               0.6 7             4.3 154        95.1
  Female

Cluster percentage                                                                                                       

                                           0.3                       7.6                      92.1

= 6.260, d.f = 2, p- value = .044 (Relationship)

Possession of Multiple Sexual Partners        
  Male 6             3.3 7               3.8 24          13.1 146        79.8
  Female 2             1.2 5               3.1 14            8.6 141        87.0
  Cluster percentage                                                           2.25                        3.45                    10.85                83.4

= 3.788, d. f = 3, p – value = .285 (No relationship )

Having Sex Under Intoxication        
  Male 0               0.0 11             6.0 15            8.2 157        85.8
  Female 1               0.6 3               1.9 12            7.4 146        90.1
  Cluster percentage                  0.3                       3.95                      7.8                  87.95

= 5.045, d. f = 3, p – value = .169 (No relationship)

Unprotected Sex        
  Male 2              1.1 12             6.6 32          17.5 137        74.9
  Female 1               0.6 7               4.3 31          19.1 123        75.9
  Cluster percentage                  0.85                      5.45                    18.3                   75.4

= 1.145, d. f = 3, p – value = .766 (No relationship)

Transactional/Survival Sex        
  Male 3             1.6 5             2.7 19          10.4 156        85.2
  Female 0             0.0 5             3.1 9              5.6 148        91.4
  Cluster percentage                0.8                       2.9                          8.0                    88.3

= 5.524, d. f = 3, p – value = .137 (No relationship).

Oral Sex        
  Male 5             2.7 11           6.0 4              2.2 163        89.1
  Female 5             3.1 14           8.6 2              1.2 141        87.0
  Cluster percentage                 2.9                      7.3                         1.7                 88.05

= 1.345, d. f = 3, p – value = .718 (Not significant)

 

Anal Sex

       
  Male 5             2.7 7             3.8 2            1.1 169       92.3
  Female 2             1..2 5             3.1 3            1.9 152       93.8
  Cluster percentage                1.95                      3.45                   1.5                    93.05   
  Overall Cluster % Total   (P-value 0.402)          
     = 1.446, d. f = 3, p – value = 695 (No relationship)
     

 

Table 4  shows  no relationship between gender and risky sexual behaviours as follows: possession of multiple sex partner (3.788, p – value = .285),  having sex under intoxication ( = 5.045, p – value = .169), unprotected sex ( = 1.145, p – value = .766), transactional/survival sex ( = 5.524, p – value = .137),  oral sex ( = 1.345, p – value = .718),  and anal sex ( = 1.446, p – value = .695), since the p – values are greater than .05 level of significance at three degrees of freedom. The Table, however, shows that there is relationship between gender and risky sexual behaviour ( = 6.260, p – value = .044), since the p – value is less than .05 level of significance at three degrees of freedom.

 

Discussion

Table 1 shows that out of 345 respondents, 183 (53.0%) were males, while 162 (47.0%) were females. On age, 64 (18.6%) were aged between 11 – 13 years, 72 (20.9%) were aged between 14 – 16 years while 209 (60.67%) were aged between 17- 19 years.

The findings in Table 2 indicated that proportion of in-school adolescents who always engaged in risky sexual behaviours was low (2.78%). This is in agreement with the findings of Garofalo, Wolf kessel, Balfrey and DuRant (2010) which revealed that adolescents engaged in a variety of health compromising behaviours including early initiation of sexual intercourse before age 13 among 12th grade students in public high schools in Massachusett. This is lower than those of Fatusi, and Blum (2008) finding which disclosed that at 15 years a fifth of adolescents (18% males; 22% females) were sexually experienced. The finding of never had sex is in consonance with the findings of Chinsembu, Kasanda and Shaimemanya (2011) which disclosed that 50.2 per cent of the adolescents never had sexual intercourse before.

The finding that in-school adolescents engaged in possession of multiple sexual partners   agrees with the finding of Marston, Beguy, Kabiru and Cleland (2011) which disclosed that multiple sexual partners were common among the respondents, and (CDC 2012) through YRBSS stated that 15.3 per cent of the adolescents had sexual intercourse with four or more people during their life.

In agreement with the finding that in-school adolescents engaged in having sex under intoxication, Fatusi and Blum (2008) and Omeje, Ekwueme and Petronilla Omeje (2013) in their study, revealed that in-school adolescents engaged in having sex under intoxication through alcohol use (HR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.38 2.62 to burst their sexual behaviours and excessive intake of alcohol constitutes sexual behaviours in the society.

The finding that in-school adolescents never engaged in transactional/survival sex contradicts that of Zhou and Diana (2011) whose report revealed that female adolescents made choices to engage in transactional/survival sex to gain access to a continuum of material and consumer needs. Besides, the exchange of materials could also be for support of many reasons, not really for sexual acts. The act of transfer of money or gift could be the expression of love and commitment as they are about meeting the financial needs of the female adolescents or the acquisition of sex for males. Similar findings by Oladokun, Enakpene, Fabamwo, Obisesan, Ogenbede (2005) and Cherie and Berhane (2012) which disclosed that some respondents had also practiced oral sex and 51.1 per cent of students engaged in anal sex are in line with the finding in this study that in-school adolescents sometimes engaged in oral and anal sex.

The result in Table 3 disclosed that in-school adolescents engaged in risky sexual behaviour based on age. The findings which revealed that adolescents aged 11-19 years engaged in risky sexual behaviour is not in agreement with the findings of Chinsembu, Kasanda and Shaimemanya (2011) who found that 50.2% of adolescents aged 12 – 16 years never had sex before. This notwithstanding, the finding is in line with that of Marston, Beguy, Kabiru and Cleland (2011) which reported that respondents who were aged 12 – 16 years had experienced early sexual debut, and that of Oluwatoyin and Modupe (2014) revealed that adolescents between ages 10 – 14 years were engaged in risky sexual behaviour more than those between 15 – 19 years. Alex-Hart, Okagua and Opara (2015) revealed that age group has no positive relationship with having sexual intercourse (χ2=4.522, P=.104).

The study further found that in-school adolescents aged 11 – 19 years engaged in possession of multiple sexual partners, had sex under intoxication, and practiced unprotected sex. The findings are consistent with the findings of Fatusi and Blum (2008), CDC (2012), Awotidebe, Philips, and Lens (2014) and Oluwatoyin and Modupe (2014),  which reported that 15.3 per cent of the respondents had had intercourse with four or more people during their life, 42.2 per cent reported having penetrating sex with more than one partner, using alcohol in-school adolescents was (HR=1.90, 95% CI = 1.38-2.62) and that in-school adolescents practiced unsafe sexual activity.

Other findings in contrast to that of the researcher are Awotidebe, Philips and Lens (2014) who recorded that 44 per cent of adolescents reported consistent and regular use of condoms for every sexual intercourse especially adolescents with high knowledge of HIV infection, and Ngwu (2015) reported that slightly less than one fifth of the adolescent students always took oral contraceptives, had sex using withdrawal method, had sex with protection and with condom.

The finding in Table 3 also shows that in-school adolescents aged 11-19years had not engaged in transactional/survival sex was surprising because gifts and favours are sign of love and care. Females are supposed to be cared for by males. Also, females are known for materialism to live above standard. The finding is in disagreement with the findings of Manlove, Logan, Moore and Ikramullah (2008) who reported that adolescents especially females make choices to engage in transactional sex to gain access to continuum of material and consumer needs.

The result further revealed that in-school adolescents aged 11-19 years engaged in oral sex. The respondents probably thought that oral sex set them at liberty, safe from unintended and unwanted pregnancy with its painful consequences that might result from vaginal sex. They were also preserving their virginity and reducing risk of STIs. This finding agrees with the findings of Oladokun, Enakpene, Fabamwo, Obisesan and Ogengebede (2005) who stated that some school adolescents had also practiced oral sex. Some other similar studies are in consonance with this finding. For instance, Cherie and Berhane (2012) revealed that the overall proportion of respondents who reported ever having oral sex was 5.4 per cent (190) and of these 51.6 per cent (98) had oral sex in the past 12 months.

The finding that in-school adolescents aged 11-19 years never engaged in anal sex was expected. It was expected because the level of social exposure in the study area is low, so one could had believed that in-school adolescents from such area would not know about such method as anal sex, talk more of engaging in it. The finding contradicts the findings of Marston, et al. (2011) who reported that considerable proportion of the respondents had engaged in anal sex

The finding in Table 4 that in-school adolescents engaged in risky sexual behaviour based on gender agrees with that of Peltzer (2011) which shows that the overall prevalence of sexual intercourse among adolescents in the past 12 months was 11.0 per cent (14.6% males and 7.6% females). The finding is also in consonance with the findings of Fatusi, et al. (2008); Chinsembu, et al. (2011), which disclosed that about a fifth of respondents (18 % males; 22% females) were sexually experienced and among females were also associated with increased adolescents early sexual initiation and also sexual activity was significantly high among male gender. This implies that sexual behaviour is higher among male compared to female students.

It was also found that few male and female respondents engaged in possession of multiple sexual partners and having sex under intoxication compared to their male counterparts, while majority claimed never engaged in having sex under intoxication. This finding is not in consonance with the findings of Oladokun, et al. (2005) and Fatusi, et al. (2008) which reported that most of those adolescents that are sexually exposed had more than one partner with higher proportion being male students, and that some respondents reported alcohol use (HR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.38 -2.62) before sex.

The findings further more show that male students always insignificantly engaged in transactional/survival sex compared to female in-school adolescents, and females sometimes engaged in transactional/survival sex more than males. This finding contradicts the findings of Ejike (2015) which revealed that 135 of the sexually active students (61.1%) agreed they received money for the sexual relationship they had. Of these, males 87(64.4%) significantly outnumbered females 48(35.5%). Similarly, Poulin (2007) disclosed that both males and females reported that gift giving and providing support are part and parcel of the dating scene.

It was equally indicated that female in-school adolescents engaged in oral sex more compared to male adolescents though insignificant, while majority of both gender claimed never engaged in oral sex. This finding disagrees with Chisembu, et al. (2011) whose report disclosed that sexual activity was significantly high among adolescent male respondents compared to female students.

The result further revealed that male in-school respondents insignificantly engaged in anal sex more than female students. According to Houston, Fan, Husman, and Peralta, (2007)’s findings which revealed that between 3% and 41% of girls and between 7% and 20% of boys reported having engaged in anal sex. This is in consonance with the findings of the present study.

 

Conclusion

In-school adolescents engaged in some forms of risky sexual behaviours such as early sexual initiation, possession of multiple sexual partners among others.  Age was found to be related to in-school adolescents’ risky sexual behaviour, while gender was not.

 

Recommendations

Following the findings and conclusion of the study, the below   recommendations were made:

  1. The Federal Ministries of Health and Education in collaboration with Taraba State Ministries of Health and Education should utilized the findings of this research work when drafting the national adolescents’ health policy to capitalize on sexual risk behaviour of adolescents as target.
  2. Curriculum planners should consider the findings of this study when planning and developing curriculum for both junior and senior secondary schools putting into consideration the variance in age, gender, reproductive health/sexuality education should be incorporated into secondary school curriculum/syllabus where it has not been done, and
  3.  Parents in collaboration with teachers should ensure to develop cordial and close relationship with adolescents through cohesive monitoring, supervision and also guiding them against bad peer groups as models.
  4. Parents should endeavour to find out sources, caution and discourage at pre-school age of 5 years because at this stage, it is believed that children are curious and so ask a lot of funny questions especially from their mothers’ adolescents through rejection of materials and (or) gifts into the house.
  5. In order to curtail or reduce early sexual initiation among adolescents, parents should begin early to teach or orientate their children on reproductive health matters.
  6. There is need for religious bodies, institutions or organizations to set rules to regulate adolescents’ risky sexual behaviours through moral order, sanctions and punishments by deities for deviance for their adolescents in order to control risky sexual behaviours.

 

References

Abma, J. C., Martinez, G. M., & Copen, C. E. (2010). Teenagers in the United States: Sexual activity, contraceptive use, and childbearing, National Survey of Family Growth 2006-2008. National Centre for Health Statistics. Vital and Health Statistics, 23(30).

Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_23/sr23_030.pdf

Alex, B. A., Okagua, J. & Opara, P. I. (2015). Sexual behaviour of secondary school students in Port Harcourt. British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research 6(3), 325-334. DOI:10.9734/BJMMR/2015/14539.

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Parity and Economic Status as Determinants of Antenatal Care Services Utilization Among Pregnant Women in Igbo Eze South Local Government Area of Enugu State

 

Bethrand C. Mama

Department of Health and Physical Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Abstract

The study was embarked upon to ascertain the parity and economic status determinants of Antennal Care (ANC) Local utilization among pregnant women in Igbo-Eze South Local Government Area of Enugu State. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The   cross-sectional research design was used for the study, and the population for the study consisted of 382 pregnant woman attending health facilities for antenatal care in Igbo Eze South Local Government Area of Enugu State. The entire population of 382 pregnant women was used for the study. The researcher-designed and validated questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. Frequency and percentage were used to answer the research questions, while ANOVA statistics was used to test the null hypotheses at .05 level of significance. The result of the study showed that ANC services utilization among the pregnant women was influenced by parity and income level.  There was significant difference in ANC Services utilization among pregnant women Igbo-Eze South Local Government Area of Enugu State based on parity and economic status. Among others things, it was recommended that the principles, theory and practice of ANC Services should be included in the primary and secondary school curriculum.

 

Introduction

Antenatal care remains an important tool in reducing maternal and infant mortality. Maternal and infant mortality are serious public health problems both in developed and developing countries but the rate is higher in developing than in developed countries. Worldwide over half a million women die as a result of child birth or complications due to pregnancy, with 99 percent of these deaths occurring in developing countries (Gage, 2010). The rate of maternal mortality can be reduced to the barest minimum through availability and utilization of antenatal care services. World health organization-WHO (2006) suggests that 88 to 98 per cent of all pregnancy related deaths are avoidable, if all women would have access to and utilize effective reproductive health care services. In order to prevent these pregnancy related health problems, pregnant women should visit the hospital or clinic on a regular basis for supervision and care, normally referred to as antenatal care.

Antennal care is a basic necessity for the health of both the mother and foetus. It involves a number of routine visits for assessment, to a variety of health care professionals on a regular basis throughout the period pregnancy. Adeliade (2009) defined antenatal care as a complete health supervision of the pregnant mother in order to maintain, protect and promote health and wellbeing of the mother, the foetus and the new born infant. Antenatal care is the clinical assessment of mother and foetus during pregnancy, for the purpose of obtaining the best possible outcome for the mother and the child (Harrigton, 2012). Lucas and Gills (2009) stated that the functions of antenatal care services include preparing the pregnant woman and her family for delivery, educating the pregnant woman, her family and community. Other functions according to them include assessment and monitoring of health status of the woman and progress of pregnancy, providing appropriate preventive measures, nutritional supplements (iron, folic acid), tetanus immunization, malaria prophylaxis or treatment as indicated. These antenatal care services are available in health facilities but availability of these services will not make meaning if the services are not being utilized by pregnant mothers whom they are meant for.

Utilizing means using something. Utilization is the act of using, or the manner in which something is used. Utilization according to Gazal, Mukta and Gana (2012) is the way in which people use a particular thing, product, or service because of their belief that it is important or serves a very vital function and significant role in their wellbeing, society at large and the survival of the human race. Ideally these pregnant mothers are supposed to utilize these services especially when they are pregnant, but sometimes it appears that many do not utilize the services, due to some factors that may hinder utilization of antenatal care services. In this case, such factors are regarded as determinants.

A determinant is something that influences the outcome of another thing. Sandra, (2008) defined determinant as a factor which establishes or changes the nature of an entity or event. Determinant according to Awusi, Anyanw and Okeke (2009) is a factor that decisively affects the nature or the outcome of something. It is element that fixes or conditions an outcome. Sullivan, (2009) defined determinant as a factor causing trouble in achieving a positive result or tending to produce a negative result. Such factors include parity and income level.

Economic status of a mother can influence her utilization of antenatal care services. Commission on Social Determinants of Health (2008) defined economic status as a measure of an individual’s or family’s economic and social position based on income and occupation. Economic status is a factor that is used to determine a person’s social class which is based on the amount of wealth the individual has, which can be determined by looking at the family’s income and assets (Arthur, 2009). Change in economic status of an individual may bring about a change in the person’s way of life and probably the number of children to have, thereby influencing his or her health services utilization.

Parity is the number of children a woman has given birth to. Parity as defined by Rundel (2005) is the number of times a female has given birth to, counting multiple births as one and usually including still births. Parity according to Opera and Zaidi (2007) is defined as the number of times a woman has given birth to a foetus with a gestational age of twenty-four weeks or more, regardless of whether the child was born alive or was still birth. The number of children a woman has can really influence her antenatal care utilization. For instance, a woman who has had at least two deliveries may think that she has learnt all she needs to know during her previous pregnancy or pregnancies as the case may be. However, a great grand multiparous woman (a woman who has had seven or more births) may feel ashamed, and shy away from utilizing antenatal care services.

Pregnant women according to Campell and Klock (2001) are women having developing embryo or foetus in their bodies, after a union of an ovum and spermatozoa. Hornby (2006) defined pregnant woman as an adult female human being who is having a baby or foetus developing inside her womb. Collins (2012) defined a pregnant woman as a female who is carrying a developing foetus in her body. Hence, pregnant women were the subjects in this study.

Antenatal care is an essential safety net for healthy motherhood and childbirth. One of the major reasons why people get married is for child bearing and rearing. This can only be achieved if the mother is in good health condition and if the child is born alive and healthy without any birth disorder. One of the objectives of Millennium Development Goals MDGs is reduction of maternal mortality to at least half by the year 2000 and a further one-half reduction in the year 2015. In order to achieve these goals, pregnant mothers are supposed to utilize antenatal care services available in hospitals and clinics where their health and wellbeing and those of their babies are guaranteed. This is because utilization of antenatal care services will enhance early detection and treatment of any pregnancy related health problem that could interfere with pregnancy and child birth. As part of the effort to achieve these goals, antenatal care became one of the four pillar initiatives of the safe motherhood initiatives. Despite all the efforts geared towards reducing maternal mortality rate through antenatal care services, maternal mortality seems to be on the increase, which implies that pregnant women do not adequately utilize antenatal care services. Therefore, the need to find out if certain socio-demographic factors influence their utilization of these services. The present study seeks to answered two questions.

 

Research Question

  1. To what extent is parity a factor in ANC utilization among pregnant woman in Igbo Eze South LGA?
  2. To what extent is economic status a factor in ANC utilization among pregnant woman in Igbo Eze South LGA?

 

Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses are postulated to be tested at .05 level of significance.

  1. There is no significant difference in antenatal care services utilization among pregnant women in Igbo Eze South LGA based on parity.
  2. There is no significant difference in antenatal care services utilization among pregnant women in Igbo Eze South LGA based on economic status.

 

Method

Cross-sectional research design was used for the study. The population for the study consisted of all the 382 pregnant women attending health facilities for antenatal care in Igbo Eze South Local Government Area of Enugu State. No sample was drawn due to the manageable size of the population. The instrument for data collection was a four-point rating scale and validated questionnaire which was structured by the researcher through literature review and based on the objectives of the study. The split half method was used to determine the reliability of the instrument. The reliability coefficient of .73 was obtained using Spearman Brown correlation coefficient.

Copies of the instrument were administered to the students on a face to face basis and collected on the spot with the help of the health workers as research assistants. The research questions were analyzed using mean scores and standard deviation. while ANOVA statistic was used to test the null hypotheses at .05 level of significance.

 

Results

Table 1

Percentage Response on the Extent of ANC Services Utilization among Pregnant Women Based on parity

 

          Items of utilization 1-4 children

 (n=125)

5 children and above

245

    F % D F % D
1 Booking at first time (history taking of the mother’s general health, examination of height, weight and blood pressure) 78   62.4 HE     114 46.5 ME
2 Urinalysis (testing of urine to detect any abnormality) 49   39.2 LE 95 38.7 ME
3 Blood test (for anaemia, sexually transmitted diseases, and blood group) 54 43.2 ME 105 42.9 ME
4 Palpation (checking of the abdomen to ascertain position, growth and development of foetus and foetal heart sound) 81 64.8 HE 127 51.8 ME
5 General assessment (to ascertain the mother’s health condition and size of the pelvis) 38 30.4 LE 71 29 VLE
6 Malaria prophylaxis and other materials such as mosquitoes’ nets given to prevent malaria 74 59.2 ME 89   36.3 LE
7 Tetanus toxoid immunization (to enable the mother develop immunity against tetanus and enable the foetus receive immunity against danger of natal tetanus) 95 76 HE 149 60.8 HE
8 Health education (e.g. importance of breast feeding, personal hygiene, care of the body, how to keep healthy in pregnancy, and so on) 47 37.6 LE 203 82.9 VHE
9 Health counselling (for mothers with complications) 89 71.2 HE 94 38.4 LE
10 Diagnosis and treatment of complications 90 72 ME 128 52.2 ME
11 Treatment of minor ailments (such of anaemia, malaria, worm, urinary tract infections). 58 46.4 ME 141 57.6 ME
12 Moderate physical exercise (eg hiking, jugging, among others) 33 26.4 VLE 90 36.7 LE
13 Social activities such as dancing and singing 102 81.6 VHE 70 28.6 VLE
  Overall  %   54.6 ME   46.38 ME

 

Key:     VHE – very high extent

HE  – high extent

ME­ – moderate extent

LE – low extent

VLE – very low extent

 

Table 1 shows the proportion of women who utilized ANC services. It shows that both women with 1 to 4 children and those with 5 children and above utilized to a moderate extent (54.6%) and (46.3%) respectively. The Table further shows that the proportion of women who booked at first time is higher among women who had one to four children (62.4%) than those of them with five children and above.         It also showed that on the average, women with one to four children (46.4%) and those with five children and above (57.6%) engaged in moderate physical exercise to a moderate extent. The Table further showed that for item 13, mothers with   5 children and above utilized social services to a moderate extent (=2.13) while women with 1-4 children utilized it to a low extent (=1.93).

 

Table 2

Percentage Response on the Extent of ANC Services Utilization among Pregnant Women Based on income level.

Items  of utilization Below N10,000 (n=87) N 10,000-29,000 (n=143) N 30,000-79,000  (n=48)  80,000- N99,000 (n=31) N100,000 and above (n=61)
      f           %      D   f             %        D    f           %         D   f           %            D f         %            D
1 Booking  at first time (history taking of the mother’s  general health, examination of height, weight and blood pressure) 42 48.3 ME 90 62.9 HE 15 31.3 LE 20 64.5 HE 36 59.1 ME
  2 Urinalysis (testing of urine to detect any abnormality) 54 62.1 HE    81 56.6

 

 

ME 19 39.6 LE 13 41.9 ME 41 67.2 HE
3 Blood test (for anaemia, sexually transmitted diseases, and blood group) 71  81.6 VH 45 31 LE 21 43.8 ME 19 61.3 HE 29 47.5 ME
4 Palpation (checking of the abdomen to ascertain position, growth and development of foetus and foetal heart sound) 33 37.9 LE 49 34.3 LE 34 70.8 HE 27 87.1 VHE 30 49.2 ME
5 General assessment (to ascertain the mother’s health condition and size  of the pelvis) 50 57.5 ME   63 44.1 ME 23 47.9 ME 9 29.1 VLE 34 55.7 ME
6 Malaria prophylaxis and other  materials such as mosquitoe nets given  to prevent malaria 61 70.1 HE 72 50.3 ME 18 37.5 LE 23 74.2 HE 19 31.1 LE
7 Tetanus toxoid immunization (to  enable the mother develop immunity against tetanus and enable the foetus receive immunity against  danger of natal tetanus    69 79.3 HE 101 70.6 HE 30 62.5 ME 14 45.2 ME 23 37.7 LE
8 Health education (eg importance of breast feeing, personal hygiene, care of the body, how to keep healthy in pregnancy, and so on) 49 56.3 ME 47 32.9 LE 11 22.9 VLE 17 54.8 ME 47 77.1 HE
9 Health counselling (for mothers with complications) 37 42.5 ME 54 37.8 LE 33 68.8 ME 21 67.7 ME 31 50.8 ME
10 Diagnosis and treatment of complications 65 74.7 HE 62 43.4 ME 25 52.1 ME 25 80.6 VHE 49 80.3 VHE
11 Treatment of minor ailments (such of anaemia, malaria, worm, urinary tract infections). 27 31.1 LE 87 60.8 ME 37 77.1 HE 10 32.3 LE 23 37.7 LE
12 Moderate physical exercise (eg hiking, jugging, among others) 34 39.1 LE 91 63.6 HE 39 81.1 VHE 29 93.5 VHE 41 3.44 LE
13 Social activities such as dancing and singing 52 59.8 ME 40 28 VLE 19 39.6 LE 17 54.8   ME 35 57.4 ME
  Overall   %   56.6 ME   47.4 ME   51.5 ME   60.5 HE   52.7 ME

 

Table 2 shows the ANC services utilization of Pregnant women according to income level. The Table revealed that pregnant women whose level of income per month was N80,000 to N99,000 (60.5%) utilized ANC services to a high extent while women with income below N10,000 (56.6%), N30,000 to N79,000 (51.9%), and N 100,000 and  above (52.7%) utilize ANC services to a moderate extent. All the pregnant women irrespective of their income levels utilized urinalysis to a moderate extent. . It showed that women in the income level of N10, 000 to N29, 000 (62.9) and those of N 80,000 to N 99,000 booked at the first time to a high extent while all other women booked to a moderate extent.

 

Table 3

Summary of ANOVA Testing the Null Hypothesis no Significant Difference between economic status and ANC Services Utilization among Pregnant Women.

 

Model Summary of squares df Means square F-value P-value Decision
Between groups 280.960 4 70.24 1.936 .104 Rejected Ho1
Within groups 13244.242 365 36      
Total 13525.203 369        

 

Table 3 shows that calculated P-value (.104) is greater than .05 level of significance, hence the null hypothesis of no significant difference between level of income of pregnant women and ANC Services utilization is rejected. This means that there is difference in ANC Services utilization based on level of income.

 

Table 4

Summary of ANOVA Testing the Null Hypothesis of no Significant Difference between Parity and ANC Services Utilization among Pregnant Women.

Model Summary of squares df Means square F-value P-value Decision
Between groups 117.283 1 117.283 3.219 .044 Reject Ho2
Within groups 13407.919 368 36.435      
Total 13525.203 369        

 

Table 4shows that the calculated P-value (.044) is less than .05 level of significance, hence the null hypothesis of no significant difference between parity and ANC Services utilization among the pregnant women is not rejected. This means that there is no difference in ANC Services utilization based on parity.

 

Discussion

The result of the study showed that women with 1-4 children (54.6%) utilized ANC services more than those with 5 children and above (46.3%). This finding is not in line with Navaneetham and Dharmalingam (2002) who stated that higher birth order decreases the use of maternal health care services. Reason may be that the women who have gained more experience pregnancy and child birth may feel reluctant, and the time and cost pressures associated with larger families which decrease utilization. Sharma (2007) showed that women who delivered their first child were found to be significantly more likely to use prenatal care and trained assistance during the birth delivery than women in higher order. This may be because a higher birth order suggests greater family sizes and hence lower resources (both time and money) available to seek formal health care.

It was also revealed that pregnant mothers whose level of income fall within N80, 000-N99, 000 (60.5%)utilized ANC service more than the other women. This finding is not surprising because it is expected that wealthier women will utilize ANC services more than the poor. Also, considering the fact that the study area is a rural area, a woman whose income per month is between N 80,000 and N 99,000 is considered as being wealthy and as such is able to afford the cost of ANC services more than those who are poor. This finding is consistent with the findings of Ortis (2007) who observed that wealthier mothers had more chances of attending a first visit and additional antenatal visits than the poorer mothers in Columbia. WHO and UNICEF (2003) also noted that low economic status of women denies them the power to make decisions that affect their lives and is a barrier to improving maternal health outcomes among the poor.

 

Conclusion

On the basis of the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn. Parity was a factor that determined ANC Services utilization among pregnant women in Igbo Eze South LGA. This is because women who had 1-4 children utilized ANC services more than their counterparts with 5 children and above. Economic status was also a factor that determined ANC Services utilization among pregnant women. This is because women in N80,00 to N99,000 income level utilized ANC services more than women in other income levels.

 

Recommendations

            Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made:

  1. Government should subsidize the cost of ANC Services so that every woman can afford it.
  2. State Ministry of Health, non-governmental organization and other health personnel, should organize periodic workshops for women, especially in the rural areas, with topics that relate to ANC Services utilization and the benefits.
  3. Women’s gatherings in the churches and communities such as August meetings, women Organization meetings, should be utilized by health educators and health personnel as opportunities to talk to women about the necessity of ANC Services utilization and implications of non-utilization.

 

References

Aggrawal, O, P., Gupta, A., & Kumar, R.. (1997). Utilization of antenatal care service in Peril-Urban areas of East Delhi India Journal of Community Medicine, 22(1), 29-32.

Awusi, V .O, Anyanwu, E. B. & Okeke, V. (2009) Determinants of antenatal care services utilization in Emevor village, Nigeria. Benin Journal of Post Graduate Medicine. Retrieved from http/:www.ajol.info/index.ph.

Bahilu, T. Mariam, A.G. & Dibaba, Y. (2008). Factors affecting antenatal care utilization I yemi special Woreda, South-Western Ethiopia. Ethiopia: Ethiopia Jimma University Press.

Campell,.L. A & Klocke, R. A. (2001)” Implication ofr the prey patient”. American Journal of Respiration & critical care medic 163 (5) 1051 – 4.

Charkraborty, M., Islam, M.A., Chowdhurry, R.I., & Bari, W. (2003). Determinants of the utilization of maternal heath services in rural Bangladesh: Health Promotion International 18 (4), 3 27-37.

Collins Dictionary, Com. (2012) Collins English dictionary: complete and unabridged 11th edition.

Gage, A. J. (2007). Barriers to the utilization of maternal health care in Rural Mali. Journal of Social Science and Medicine 6,(8,)66-82.

Gazali, W. A., Mukta, & Gana (2012). Maternal health care facilities among pregnant and non-pregnant women of child bearing age in Maiduguri metropolitan council and Jere LGA of Borno State. Continental Journal of Tropical Medicine 6 (1), 12-21.

Harrington. K. (2012) Kevin Harrington health care. Retrieved from http:/www.Pregnancy Care CU/Contact/2006

Hornby, A. S. (2006) Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary of current English (7th ed). New York: Oxford University Press.

Navadeethan, K., & Dharma L. (2002). Utilized or maternal health care services in south Indian.  Journal of Social Sciences and Medicines, 55, 1849 – 1869.

Onasoga .O.A., Afolayan, J.N.& Oladimeji, B. D (2013). Factors influencing utilization of antenatal care services among pregnant women in Ife central LGA. Osun State ,Nigeria. Pelagia Research Library Advances in Applied Sciences Research, 3(3): 1309-1315.

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Demographic Factors Associated with Utilization of Antenatal Care Services Among Pregnant Women in Song Local Government Area of Adamawa State

Yohanna Wamanyi1*, E.S. Samuel2 & EkeminiE. Samuel3

 

1,2 Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Nigeria Nsukka

3University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt

* Corresponding Author:

 

Abstract

The study was designed to investigate the demographic factors associated with the utilization of antenatal care services among pregnant women in Song local government area, Adamawa State. In order to accomplish this purpose, three specific objectives and corresponding research questions were formulated. Three null hypotheses were postulated for the study. Descriptive survey design was employed for this study. Four hundred (400) sample size was determined using Yaro Yamane’s formula for determining sample size of any definite population. The instrument for data collection was questionnaire. Frequencies and percentages were used to answer the research questions, while the hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance at appropriate degree of freedom using chi-square. A total of 300 (73.8%) pregnant women utilized the components of ANC services. The highest ANC services utilized was health education (96.7%) followed by screening (90.5%), routine drugs (80.8%) and physical examination (65.0%) while the lowest ANC services utilization was immunization (35.7%). There was significant difference in the utilization of ANC services among pregnant women based on age and location; and no significant difference based on parity. The researcher recommended among other things that health education and campaign on adequate utilization of antenatal care services (especially physical examination & immunization) should be conducted by health educators and other health care professionals regularly at health centres, schools, churches, social media, among others.

 

Keywords: Demographic factors, Utilization, Antenatal care services, Pregnant women.

 

Introduction

Antenatal care (ANC) is one of the components of maternal health and is a key strategy for reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rate worldwide. ANC services and its utilization are associated with improved maternal and neonatal health outcomes. World Health Organization-WHO, United Nations Children Fund-UNICEF, World Bank Group and United Nations Population Division, (2016) reported that approximately 580,000 maternal deaths occurred in 2015 worldwide. The lifetime risk of maternal death in sub-Saharan Africa is one (1) in 22 pregnant mothers compared to one (1) in 210 in Northern Africa, one (1) in 62 for Oceania, one (1) in 120 for Asia, and one (1) in 290 for Latin America and the Caribbean (WHO, 2010). WHO, (2012) stated that in 2010, two countries reported a one third of global maternal deaths: India at 19 per cent (56,000) and Nigeria at 14 per cent (40,000). According to Federal Ministry of Health (2012), some of the dangers of pregnancy and childbirth can be prevented if the pregnant women utilize ANC services regularly. The utilization of ANC services is an important strategy in Nigeria, being the leading contributor to maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa.

Antenatal care is a sure way of achieving healthy mother and child. In Nigeria, it was estimated that approximately 59,000 of maternal deaths take place annually as a result of pregnancy, delivery and post-delivery complications, despite the availability of ANC services (World Health Organization-WHO, United Nations Children Fund-UNICEF & United Nations Population Fund-UNFPA, 2007). With an estimated 59,000 maternal deaths, Nigeria which has approximately two per cent of the world’s population contributes more than 10 per cent of the world’s maternal deaths which can be attributed partly to non-utilization of ANC services (Dairo & Owoyokun, 2010). According to WHO, UNICEF, World Bank Group and United Nations Population Division, maternal mortality ratio in Nigeria was last measured at 814 in 2015.Utilization of ANC services is one of the most important indicator for controlling maternal morbidity and mortality. ANC has been defined by various authors.

Utilization is to make use of something for its benefit. Utilization is the use of something especially for practical purposes (Onah, Ikeakor & Iloabuchi, 2006). Fosu, (2011) divided utilization into two; low utilization and effective utilization.  Low utilization is when less than fifty per cent persons use a given service, whereas effective utilization is when more than fifty per cent of persons use a particular service. WHO, (2005) explained ANC services utilization as using enough visits (at least three) with early timing (first visit during first trimester) and sufficient services (at least six core services according to the experts recommendations). Utilization of ANC services has been identified in a number of studies as an important factor in determining maternal and infant mortality. Villar, (2012) asserted that the trend of maternal mortality in developing countries has been increasing and various international organizations have reported that an important factor related to maternal and infant mortality has been linked to lack of utilization of antenatal care services. According to Federal Ministry of Health (2005), in order to decrease maternal and infant mortality rates, utilization of ANC services has to be instituted or reinforced which can only be achieved through identifying factors causing poor utilization of antenatal care services.  Utilization of ANC services refers to attainment of first, second, third and fourth visits to designated clinics by pregnant women (from first trimester till delivery) and the appropriate use of services provided. Utilization of ANC services means the proper use of services provided to pregnant women during pregnancy. Utilization of ANC services among pregnant women is one of the important factors in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality.

Utilization of ANC services helps to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. Reports showed that a high utilization rate of the ANC service results in lowering the risk of maternal mortality (WHO, 2009). Magadi, Agwanda, and Obare.(2007) posited that the failure to utilize ANC services during pregnancy can lead to undesirable pregnancy outcomes such as maternal morbidity, low birth weight for the baby or even maternal and prenatal mortality. Jibo, (2005) found out two main reasons for non-utilization of ANC services; they are socio-demographic factors and access to experience traditional birth.

Demographic factors are important variables that comprise of demographic characteristics of the subject which may affect health outcomes. Toan, (2012) stated that, demographic factors are variables which include gender, age and total number of person living. Ikeoluwapo, Damilola, Osakinle, (2013) stated that, a number of demographic factors are associated with increased risk for preterm birth. The author further mentioned; young maternal age, maternal age over 35, and pregnancy for single mother and those cohabiting under marriage as associating with increased risk. Emelumadu, Ukegbu, Ezeama, Kanu, Ifeadike and Onyeonoro, (2015) listed demographic characteristics to include age, sex, place of residence, religion and marital status. For the purpose of this study, the following variables will be investigated; age, parity and location. The above factors have the potentials of restricting or enhancing the utilization of ANC among pregnant women in Song Local Government Area, Adamawa State.

The study was conducted in health care facilities that provide ANC services in Song Local Government Area of Adamawa State. The study was delimited to pregnant women in Song LGA, Adamawa state. The study focused on utilization of ANC services among pregnant women, and the relationship between demographic variables associated with utilization of ANC such as age, location and parity.

 

Method

In order to accomplish the purpose of this research, a cross-sectioned descriptive survey design was employed. The study was conducted in health care facilities that provided ANC services in Song Local Government Area of Adamawa State. The population for this study consisted of all pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic across Song Local Government Area, Adamawa State. The population of pregnant women was 12, 823 as at May, 2016 (Adamawa State Primary Health Care Development Agency-ADPHCDA, 2016). The sample for this study consisted of 400 pregnant women. This was calculated using Yaro Yamane’s formula for determining the sample size of any definite population (Gemson & Kyamru, 2013). The instrument for data collection was researcher-designed questionnaire tagged ‘Socio-demographic Factors Associated with Utilization of Antenatal Care Services Questionnaire (SODEFAS-Q). The data derived from the SODEFAS-Q were based on 2-point scale Yes or No. The respondents were requested to place a tick [√] as it applied to them in sections A and B.

The face validity of the instrument was established by giving the drafted copies of the questionnaire accompanied with the purpose of the study and its specific objectives, the research questions and hypotheses to five experts, who critically examined them and ascertain whether the items covered the objectives of the study. The experts were from the Department of Human Kinetic and Health Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The reliability of the instrument was computed using Crombach gave a valued .68, and the instrument was adjudged reliable. The data were analyzed using frequencies and percentages to answer the research questions. The null hypotheses were tested using chi-square at .05 level of significance at appropriate degree of freedom.

 

Results

Table 1

Proportion of Pregnant Women Utilizing Components of ANC Services (n=407)

S/n Items Yes No
F % F %
 

1

Health Education

Exclusive breast feeding

 

394

 

96.8

 

13

 

3.2

2 Nutrition 398 97.8 9 2.2
3 Family planning 398 97.8 9 2.2
4 Personal hygiene 398 97.8 9 2.2
5 Exercise 379 93.1 28 6.9
 

 

6

Cluster %

Routine Drugs

Ferrous sulphate

393

 

402

96.7

 

98.8

14

 

5

3.3

 

1.2

7 Folic acid 387 95.1 20 4.9
8 Multivitamin tablets 391 96.1 16 3.9
9 Vitamin B complex 131 32.2 276 67.8
10 Vitamin C tablets 333 81.8 74 18.2
 

 

11

Cluster %

Physical Examination

Abdominal palpation

329

 

397

80.8

 

97.5

78

 

10

19.2

 

2.5

12 Breast examination 260 63.9 147 36.1
13 Examination of skin 204 50.1 203 49.9
14 Examination of private part 198 48.6 209 51.4
 

 

15

Cluster %

Screening

HIV test

265

 

388

65.0

 

95.3

142

 

19

35.0

 

4.7

16 Urine test for protein and sugar 376 92.4 31 7.6
17 Blood test for anaemia 364 89.4 43 10.6
18 Blood test for malaria parasite 317 77.9 90 22.1
19 BP measurement 397 97.5 10 2.5
 

 

20

Cluster %

Immunization

TT1 dose

368

 

380

90.5

 

93.4

39

 

27

9.5

 

6.6

21 TT2 dose 286 70.3 121 29.7
22 TT3 dose 35 8.6 372 91.4
23 TT4 dose 3 0.7 404 99.3
24 TT5 dose 23 5.7 384 94.3
  Cluster %

Overall %

145

300

35.7

73.8

262

107

64.3

26.2

 

Data in Table 1 show that overall 73.8% of pregnant women utilized ANC services. This shows high proportion of utilization. The table further reveals the proportion of respondents that utilized specific ANC services as follows: health education (96.7%), screening (90.5%), routine drugs (80.8%), physical examination (65.0%) and immunization (35.7%). Besides immunization with low proportion of utilization (35.7%), other components of ANC services were highly utilized.

 

 

 

 

Table 2

Proportion of Utilization of ANC Services Among Pregnant Women Based on Age (n=407)

 

S/n Age Below 19 years

(n=60)

19 – 25 years

(n=161)

26 – 32 years

(n=111)

33 – 45 years

(n=67)     

46 yrs & above

(n=8)

Yes

f(%)

No

f(%)

Yes

f(%)

No

f(%)

Yes

f(%)

No

f(%)

Yes

f(%)

No

f(%)

Yes

f(%)

No

f(%)

 

 

1

Health Education

Exclusive breast feeding

 

 

 

2(3.3)

 

 

 

58(96.7)

 

 

 

3(1.9)

 

 

 

158(98.1)

 

 

 

2(1.8)

 

 

 

109(98.2)

 

 

 

5(7.5)

 

 

 

62(92.5)

 

 

 

1(12.5)

 

 

 

7(87.5)

2 Nutrition   2(3.3) 58(96.7) 3(1.9) 158(98.1) 3(2.7) 108(97.3) 1(1.5) 66(98.5) 0(0.0) 8(100.0)
3 Family planning  

1(1.7)

 

59(98.3)

 

3(1.9)

 

158(98.1)

 

2(1.8)

 

109(98.2)

 

2(3.0)

 

65(97.0)

 

1(12.5)

 

7(87.5)

4 Personal hygiene  

3(5.0)

 

57(95.0)

 

2(1.2)

 

159(98.8)

 

3(2.7)

 

108(97.3)

 

1(1.5)

 

66(98.5)

 

0(0.0)

 

8(100.0)

5 Exercise 3(5.0) 57(95.0) 9(5.6) 152(94.4) 10(9.0) 101(91.0) 4(6.0) 63(94.0) 2(25.0) 6(75.0)
 

 

 

6

Cluster %

Routine Drugs

Ferrous sulphate

 3.7

 

 

 

0(0.0)

96.3

 

 

 

60(100.0)

2.5

 

 

 

2(1.2)

97.5

 

 

 

159(98.8)

3.6

 

 

 

2(1.8)

96.4

 

 

 

109(98.2)

3.9

 

 

 

1(1.5)

96.1

 

 

 

66(98.5)

10.0

 

 

 

0(0.0)

90.0

 

 

 

8(100.0)

7 Folic acid 0(0.0) 60(100.0) 6(3.7) 155(96.3) 5(4.5) 106(95.5) 7(10.4) 60(89.6) 2(25.0) 6(75.0)
8 Multivitamin tablets  

2(3.3)

 

58(96.7)

 

6(3.7)

 

155(96.3)

 

2(1.8)

 

109(98.2)

 

4(6.0)

 

63(94.0)

 

2(25.0)

 

6(75.0)

9 Vitamin B complex  

40(66.7)

 

20(33.3)

 

118(73.3)

 

43(26.7)

 

69(62.2)

 

42(37.8)

 

43(64.2)

 

24(35.8)

 

6(75.0)

 

2(25.0)

10 Vitamin C tablets  

14(23.3)

 

46(76.7)

 

17(10.6)

 

144(89.4)

 

24(21.6)

 

87(78.4)

 

17(25.4)

 

50(74.6)

 

2(25.0)

 

6(75.0)

 

 

 

11

Cluster %

Physical Examination

Abdominal palpation

 18.7

 

 

 

1(1.7)

81.3

 

 

 

59(98.3)

  18.5

 

 

 

6(3.7)

         81.5

 

 

 

155(96.3)

18.4

 

 

 

2(1.8)

81.6

 

 

 

109(98.2)

21.5

 

 

 

1(1.5)

78.5

 

 

 

66(98.5)

30.0

 

 

 

0(0.0)

70.0

 

 

 

8(100.0)

12 Breast examination  

30(50.0)

 

30(50.0)

 

56(34.8)

 

105(65.2)

 

35(31.5)

 

76(68.5)

 

25(37.3)

 

42(62.7)

 

1(12.5)

 

7(87.5)

13 Examination of skin  

40(66.7)

 

20(33.3)

 

71(44.1)

 

90(55.9)

 

47(42.3)

 

64(57.7)

 

39(58.2)

 

28(41.8)

 

6(75.0)

 

2(25.0)

14 Examination of private part  

43(71.7)

 

17(28.3)

 

70(43.5)

 

91(56.5)

 

50(45.0)

 

61(55.0)

 

40(59.7)

 

27(40.3)

 

6(75.0)

 

2(25.0)

 

 

15

Cluster %

Screening

HIV test

47.5

 

2(3.3)

   52.5

 

58(96.7)

31.5

 

7(4.3)

68.5

 

154(95.7)

30.2

 

7(6.3)

69.8

 

104(93.7)

39.2

 

3(4.5)

60.8

 

64(95.5)

40.6

 

0(0.0)

594

 

8(100.0)

16 Urine test for protein and sugar  

 

5(8.3)

 

 

55(91.7)

 

 

11(6.8)

 

 

150(93.2)

 

 

3(2.7)

 

 

108(97.3)

 

 

10(14.9)

 

 

57(85.1)

 

 

2(25.0)

 

 

6(75.0)

17 Blood test for anaemia  

8(13.3)

 

52(86.7)

 

13(8.1)

 

148(91.9)

 

8(7.2)

 

103(92.8)

 

12(17.9)

 

55(82.1)

 

2(25.0)

 

6(75.0)

18 Blood test for malaria parasite  

 

17(28.3)

 

 

43(71.7)

 

 

18(11.2)

 

 

143(88.8)

 

 

22(19.8)

 

 

89(80.2)

 

 

28(41.8)

 

 

39(58.2)

 

 

5(62.5)

 

 

3(37.5)

19 BP measurement  

2(3.3)

 

58(96.7)

 

3(1.9)

 

158(98.1)

 

4(3.6)

 

107(96.4)

 

1(1.5)

 

66(98.5)

 

0(0.0)

 

8(100.0)

 

 

20

Cluster %

Immunzation

TT1 dose

11.3

 

1(1.7)

88.7

 

59(98.3)

6.5

 

4(2.5)

93.5

 

157(97.5)

7.9

 

5(4.5)

92.1

 

106(95.5)

16.1

 

13(19.4)

83.9

 

54(80.6)

22.5

 

4(50.0)

77.5

 

4(50.0)

21 TT2 dose 22(36.7) 38(63.3) 49(30.4) 112(69.6) 22(19.8) 89(80.2) 24(35.8) 43(64.2) 4(50.0) 4(50.0)
22 TT3 dose 54(90.0) 6(10.0) 154(95.7) 7(4.3) 96(86.5) 15(13.5) 62(92.5) 5(7.5) 6(75.0) 2(25.0)
23 TT4 dose 60(100.0) 0(0.0) 160(99.4) 1(0.6) 109(98.2) 2(1.8) 67(100.0) 0(0.0) 8(100.0) 0(0.0)
24 TT5 dose 60(100.0) 0(0.0) 159(98.8) 2(1.2) 106(95.5) 5(4.5) 55(82.1) 12(17.9) 4(50.0) 4(50.0)
  Cluster %

Overall %

       65.7

       28.6

   34.3

   71.4

        65.4

        24.6

   34.6

   75.4

        60.9

        23.9

   39.1

   76.1

      66.0

      28.9

      34.0

      71.1

    65.0

    33.3

   35.0

   66.6

 

Table 2 shows that the overall per cent total of pregnant women within the age group of 46 years and above (33.3%) recorded the highest level of utilization of ANC services, followed by age group 33-45 years (28.9%), below 19 years (28.6) and 19-25 years (24.6%). In health education, age group 46 years and above (10.0%) recorded highest utilization followed by age group 33-45 years (3.9%), below 19 years (3.7%), 26-32 years (3.6%) while respondents within the age group of 19-25 (2.5%) recorded the lowest utilization. In routine drugs, age group 46 years and above (30.0%) recorded highest utilization followed by age group 33-45 years (21.5%), below 19 years (18.7%), 19-25 years (18.5%) while age group 26-32 years (18.4%) recorded lowest utilization. In physical examination, age group below 19 years (47.5%) followed by age group 46 years and above (40.6%), 33-45 years (39.2%), 19-25 years (31.5%) while age group 26-32 years (30.2%) recorded the lowest utilization. In screening, age group 46 years and above (22.5%) followed by age group 33-45 years (16.1%), below 19 years (11.3%), 26-32 years (7.9%) while age group 19-25 years (6.5%) recorded the lowest. In immunization, age group 33-45 years (66.0%) recorded the highest utilization followed by age group below 19 years (65.7%), 19-25 years (65.4%), 46 years and above (65.0%) while age group 26-32 years (60.9%) recorded the lowest.

 

Table 3

Proportion of Utilization of ANC Services Among Pregnant Women Based on Location (n=407)

S/n Location

 

 

Urban area

(n=120)

Rural area

(n=287)

Yes

f(%)

No

f(%)

Yes

f(%)

No

f(%)

  Health Education        
1 Exclusive breast feeding 0(0.0) 120(100.0) 13(4.5) 274(95.5)
2 Nutrition 2(1.7) 118(98.3) 7(2.4) 280(97.6)
3 Family planning 1(0.8) 119(99.2) 8(2.8) 279(97.2)
4 Personal hygiene 2(1.7) 118(98.3) 7(2.4) 280(97.6)
5 Exercise 2(1.7) 118(98.3) 26(9.1) 261(90.9)
 

 

6

Cluster %

Routine Drugs

Ferrous sulphate

 1.2

 

0(0.0)

 98.8

 

120(100.0)

 21.2

 

5(1.7)

     78.8

 

282(98.3)

7 Folic acid 0(0.0) 120(100.0) 20(7.0) 267(93.0)
8 Multivitamin tablets 2(1.7) 118(98.3) 14(4.9) 273(95.1)
9 Vitamin B complex 84(70.0) 36(30.0) 192(66.9) 95(33.1)
10 Vitamin C tablets 14(11.7) 106(88.3) 60(20.9) 227(79.1)
 

 

11

Cluster %

Physical Examination

Abdominal palpation

   16.7

 

2(1.7)

   83.3

 

118(98.3)

   20.3

 

8(2.8)

   79.7

 

279(97.2)

12 Breast examination 50(41.7) 70(58.3) 97(33.8) 190(66.2)
13 Examination of skin 57(47.5) 63(52.5) 146(50.9) 141(49.1)
14 Examination of private part 58(48.3) 62(51.7) 151(52.6) 136(47.4)
 

 

15

Cluster %

Screening

HIV test

  34.8

 

3(2.5)

   65.2

 

117(97.5)

     35.0

 

16(5.6)

   65.0

 

271(94.4)

16 Urine test for protein and sugar 2(1.7) 118(98.3) 29(10.1) 258(89.9)
17 Blood test for anaemia 4(3.3) 116(96.7) 39(13.6) 248(86.4)
18 Blood test for malaria parasite 11(9.2) 109(90.8) 79(27.5) 208(72.5)
19 BP measurement 1(0.8) 119(99.2) 9(3.1) 278(96.9)
 

 

20

Cluster %

Immunization

TT1 dose

 3.5

 

6(5.0)

96.5

 

114(95.0)

 12.0

 

21(7.3)

     88.0

 

266(92.7)

21 TT2 dose 31(25.8) 89(74.2) 90(31.4) 197(68.6)
22 TT3 dose 111(92.5) 9(7.5) 261(90.9) 26(9.1)
23 TT4 dose 118(98.3) 2(1.7) 286(99.7) 1(0.3)
24 TT5 dose 114(95.0) 6(5.0) 270(94.1) 17(5.9)
  Cluster %

Overall %

      63.3

      23.4

    36.7

    76.6

     64.7

     26.9

     35.3

     73.1

           

Table 3 shows the overall total of pregnant women in rural area (26.9%) utilized ANC services than their counterparts in the urban area (23.4%). In health education, respondents in rural area (21.2%) recorded highest utilization followed by those in urban area (1.2%). In routine drugs, pregnant women in rural area (20.3%) recorded highest utilization while those in urban area (16.7%) recorded the lowest utilization. In physical examination, respondents at rural areas (35.0%) recorded highest utilization while respondents at urban area (34.8%) recorded the lowest utilization. In screening, the highest utilization is recorded among respondents in rural area (12.0%) while those in urban area (3.5%) recorded the lowest utilization. In immunization, respondents in rural area (64.7%) recorded highest utilization while respondents in urban area (63.3%) recorded the lowest utilization.

 

 

Table 4

Proportion of Utilization of ANC Services Among Pregnant Women Based on Parity (n=407)

S/n Parity 1-2 children

(n=148)

3-4 children

(n =114)

5 children & above

(n=52)

first pregnancy

 (n =93)

Yes

f(%)

No

f(%)

Yes

f(%)

No

f(%

Yes

f(%)

No

f(%)

Yes

f(%)

No

f(%)

 

1

Health Education

Exclusive breast feeding

 

 

3(2.0)

 

 

145(98.0)

 

 

4(3.5)

 

 

110(96.5)

 

 

3(5.8)

 

 

49(94.2)

 

 

3(3.2)

 

 

90(96.8)

2 Nutrition 3(2.0) 145(98.0) 2(1.8) 112(98.2) 1(1.9) 51(98.1) 3(3.2) 90(96.8)
3 Family planning 2(1.4) 146(98.6) 2(1.8) 112(98.2) 3(5.8) 49(94.2) 2(2.2) 91(97.8)
4 Personal hygiene 3(2.0) 145(98.0) 2(1.8) 112(98.2) 1(1.9) 51(98.1) 3(3.2) 90(96.8)
5 Exercise 8(5.4) 140(94.6) 10(8.8) 104(91.2) 5(9.6) 47(90.4) 5(5.4) 88(94.6)
 

 

6

Cluster %

Routine Drugs

Ferrous sulphate

2.6

 

0(0.0)

  97.4

 

148(100.0)

 3.5

 

4(3.5)

     96.5

 

110(96.5)

 5.0

 

0(0.0)

  95.0

 

52(100.0)

  3.4

 

1(1.1)

    96.6

 

92(98.9)

7 Folic acid 3(2.0) 145(98.0) 7(6.1) 107(93.9) 7(13.5) 45(86.5) 3(3.2) 90(96.8)
8 Multivitamin tablets 3(2.0) 145(98.0) 6(5.3) 108(94.7) 4(7.7) 48(92.3) 3(3.2) 90(96.8)
9 Vitamin B complex 100(67.6) 48(32.4) 73(64.0) 41(36.0) 31(59.6) 21(40.4) 72(77.4) 21(22.6)
10 Vitamin C tablets 17(11.5) 131(88.5) 27(23.7) 87(76.3) 16(30.8) 36(69.2) 14(15.1) 79(84.9)
 

 

 

11

Cluster %

Physical Examination

Abdominal palpation

 16.6

 

 

 

2(1.4)

    83.4

 

 

 

146(98.6)

    20.5

 

 

 

6(5.3)

   79.5

 

 

 

108(94.7)

    22.3

 

 

 

0(0.0)

   77.7

 

 

 

52(100.0)

   20.0

 

 

 

2(2.2)

    80.0

 

 

 

91(97.8)

12 Breast examination 8(39.2) 90(60.8) 52(45.6) 62(54.4) 10(19.2) 42(80.8) 27(29.0) 66(71.0)
13 Examination of skin 73(49.3) 75(50.7) 72(63.2) 42(36.8) 25(48.1) 27(51.9) 33(35.5) 60(64.5)
14 Examination of private part  

74(50.0)

 

74(50.0)

 

72(63.2)

 

42(36.8)

 

26(50.0)

 

26(50.0)

 

37(39.8)

 

56(60.2)

 

 

15

Cluster %

screening

HIV test

   35.0

 

4(2.7)

   65.0

 

144(97.3)

   44.3

 

8(7.0)

    55.7

 

106(93.0)

   39.3

 

3(5.8)

   70.7

 

49(94.2)

    26.6

 

4(4.3)

    73.3

 

89(95.7)

16 Urine test for protein and sugar  

12(8.1)

 

136(91.9)

 

10(8.8)

 

104(91.2)

 

5(9.6)

 

47(90.4)

 

4(4.3)

 

89(95.7)

17 Blood test for anaemia  

17(11.5)

 

131(88.5)

 

13(11.4)

 

101(88.6)

 

6(11.5)

 

46(88.5)

 

7(7.5)

 

86(92.5)

18 Blood test for malaria parasite  

21(14.2)

 

127(85.8)

 

31(27.2)

 

83(72.8)

 

23(44.2)

 

29(55.8)

 

15(16.1)

 

78(83.9)

19 BP measurement 2(1.4) 146(98.6) 3(2.6) 111(97.4) 2(3.8) 50(96.2) 3(3.2) 90(96.8)
 

 

20

Cluster %

Immunization

TT1 dose

  7.6

 

3(2.0)

   92.4

 

145(98.0)

  11.4

 

10(8.8)

   88.6

 

104(91.2)

 15.0

 

12(23.1)

    85.0

 

40(76.9)

  7.1

 

2(2.2)

    92.9

 

91(97.8)

21 TT2 dose 31(20.9) 117(79.1) 39(34.2) 75(65.8) 15(28.8) 37(71.2) 36(38.7) 57(61.3)
22 TT3 dose 140(94.6) 8(5.4) 99(86.8) 15(13.2) 46(88.5) 6(11.5) 87(93.5) 6(6.5)
23 TT4 dose 147(99.3) 1(0.7) 112(98.2) 2(1.8) 52(100.0) 0(0.0) 93(100.0) 0(0.0)
24 TT5 dose 146(98.6) 2(1.4) 105(92.1) 9(7.9) 41(78.8) 11(21.2) 92(98.9) 1(1.1)
  Cluster %

Overall %

       63.1

       24.5

   36.9

   75.5

      64.0

      28.1

     36.0

     71.9

     63.8

     27.0

     36.2

     73.0

    66.7

    24.7

  33.3

   75.3

 

Table 4 shows the overall per cent total of level of utilization of ANC services among pregnant women. Respondents who have 3-4 children (28.1%) recorded the highest followed by those who have 5 children and above (27.0%) and pregnant women with first pregnancy (24.7), while pregnant women 1-2 children (24.5%) recorded the lowest utilization. In health education, the highest utilization was recorded among respondents with 5 children and above (5.0%) followed by those with 3-4 children (3.5%), first pregnancy (3.4%) while respondents with 1-2 children (2.6%) recorded the lowest utilization. In routine drugs, the highest utilization was recorded among respondents with 5 children and above (22.3%) followed by those with 3-4 children (20.5%), first pregnancy (20.0%) and respondents with 1-2 children (16.6%) recorded the lowest utilization. In physical examination, pregnant women with 3-4 children (44.3%) recorded the highest utilization followed by those with 5 children and above (39.3%), 1-2 children (35.0%) and those with first pregnancy (26.6%) recorded the lowest utilization. In screening, respondents with 5 children and above (15.0%) recorded the highest utilization followed by those with 3-4 children (11.4%), 1-2 children (7.6%) while respondents with first pregnancy (7.1%) recorded the lowest utilization. In immunization, respondents with first pregnancy (66.7%) recorded the highest followed by respondents with 3-4 children (64.0%); 5 children and above (63.8%) while respondents with 1-2 children (63.1%) recorded the lowest utilization

 

Table 5

S/n Age Below 19 years

(n=60)

19 – 25 years

(n=161)

26 – 32 years

(n=111)

33 – 45 years

(n=67)     

46 yrs & above

(n=8)

χ2 Df Sig. P
No Yes No Yes No Yes No

 

Yes No Yes
o e O e o e   o e o e o e o e o e o e o e
 

1

Health Education

Exclusive breast feeding

 

 

2

 

 

1.9

 

 

58

 

 

58.1

 

 

3

 

 

5.1

 

 

158

 

 

155.9

 

 

2

 

 

3.5

 

 

109

 

 

107.5

 

 

5

 

 

2.1

 

 

62

 

 

64.9

 

 

1

 

 

.3

 

 

7

 

 

7.7

 

 

7.810

 

 

4

 

 

.099

2 Nutrition 2 1.3 58 58.7 3 3.6 158 157.7 3 2.5 108 108.5 1 1.5 66 65.5 0 .2 8 7.8 .904 4 .924
3 Family planning 1 1.3 59 58,7 3 3.6 158 157.4 2 2.5 109 108.5 2 1.5 65 65.5 1 .2 7 7.8 4.360 4 .359
4 Personal hygiene 3 1.3 57 58.7 2 3.6 159 157.4 3 2.5 108 108.5 1 1.5 66 65.5 0 .2 8 7.8 3.322 4 .505
5 Exercise 3 4.1 57 55.9 9 11.1 152 149.9 10 7.6 101 103.4 4 4.6 63 62.4 2 .6 6 7.4 5.721 4 .221
  Cluster Value                                         31.737 16 .011
 

6

Routine Drugs

Ferrous sulphate

 

0

 

.7

 

60

 

59.3

 

2

 

2.0

 

159

 

159.0

 

2

 

1.4

 

109

 

109.4

 

1

 

.8

 

66

 

66.2

 

0

 

.1

 

8

 

7.9

 

1.185

 

4

 

.881

7 Folic acid 0 2.9 60 57.1 6 7.9 155 153.1 5 5.5 106 105.5 7 3.3 60 63.7 2 .4 6 7.6 14.925 4 .005
8 Multivitamin tab 2 2.4 58 57.6 6 6.3 155 154.7 2 4.4 109 106.6 4 2.6 63 64.4 2 .3 6 7.7 11.548 4 .021
9 Vitamin Bco 40 40.7 20 19.3 118 109.2 43 51.8 69 75.3 42 35.7 43 45.4 24 21.6 6 5.4 2 2.6 4.469 4 .346
10 Vitamin C tablets 14 10.9 46 49.1 17 29.3 144 131.7 24 20.2 87 90.8 17 12.2 80 54.8 2 1.5 6 6.5 10.821 4 .029
  Cluster Value                                         20.411 12 .060
 

11

Physical Examination

Abdominal palpation

 

1

 

1.5

 

59

 

58.5

 

6

 

4.0

 

155

 

157.0

 

2

 

2.7

 

109

 

108.3

 

1

 

1.6

 

66

 

65.4

 

0

 

.2

 

8

 

7.8

 

1.900

 

4

 

.754

12 Breast examination 30 21.7 30 39.3 56 58.1 105 102.9 35 40.1 76 70.9 25 24.2 42 42.8 1 2.9 7 5.1 8.123 4 .087
13 Examination of skin 40 29.9 20 30.1 71 80.3 90 80.7 47 55.4 64 55.6 39 33.4 28 33.6 6 4.0 2 4.0 15.316 4 .004
14 Examination of private part  

43

 

30.8

 

17

 

29.2

 

70

 

82.7

 

91

 

78.3

 

50

 

57.0

 

61

 

54.0

 

40

 

34.4

 

27

 

32.6

 

6

 

4.1

 

2

 

3.9

 

19.335

 

4

 

.001

  Cluster Value                                         38.283 12 .000
 

15

Screening

HIV test

 

2

 

2.8

 

58

 

57.2

 

7

 

7.5

 

154

 

153.5

 

7

 

5.2

 

104

 

105.8

 

3

 

3.1

 

64

 

63.9

 

0

 

.4

 

8

 

7.6

 

1.344

 

4

 

.854

16 Urine T. for protein and sugar  

5

 

4.6

 

55

 

55.4

 

11

 

12.3

 

150

 

148.8

 

3

 

8.5

 

108

 

102.5

 

10

 

5.1

 

57

 

61.9

 

2

 

.6

 

6

 

7.4

 

12.515

 

4

 

.014

17 Blood test for anaemia 8 6.3 52 53.7 13 17.0 148 144.0 8 11.7 103 99.3 12 7.1 55 59.9 2 .8 6 7.2 8.458 4 .076
18 Blood test for malaria p. 17 13.3 43 46.7 18 35.6 143 125.4 22 24.5 89 86.5 28 14.8 39 52.2 5 1.8 3 6.2 35.500   4    .000
19 BP measurement 2 1.5 58 58.5 3 4.0 158 157.0 4 2.7 107 108.3 1 1.6 66 65.4 0 .2 8 7.8 1.499 4 .827
  Cluster Value                                         48.167 16 .000
 

20

Immunization

TT1 dose

 

1

 

4.0

 

59

 

56.0

 

4

 

10.7

 

157

 

150.3

 

5

 

7.4

 

106

 

103.6

 

13

 

4.4

 

54

 

62.6

 

4

 

.5

 

4

 

7.5

 

49.606

 

4

 

.000

21 TT2 dose 22 17.8 38 42.2 49 47.9 112 113.1 22 33.0 89 78.0 24 19.9 43 47.1 4 2.4 4 5.6 9.402 4 .052
22 TT3 dose 54 54.8 6 5.2 154 147.2 7 13.8 96 101.5 15 9.5 62 61.2 5 5.8 6 7.3 2 .7 10.110  4   .039
23 TT4 dose 60 59.6 0 .4 160 159.8 1 1.2 109 110.2 2 .8 67 66.5 0 .5 8 7.9 0 .1 2.752 4 .600
24 TT5 dose 60 56.6 0 3.4 159 151.9 2 9.1 106 104.7 5 6.3 55 63.2 12 3.8 4 7.5 4 .5 58.134 4 .000
  Cluster Value                                         25.808 20 .172
  Overall Value                                         35.598 16 .003

Summary of Chi-square (χ2) Analysis Testing the Null hypothesis of no significant difference in the utilization of ANC services among pregnant women based on age

 

Cal χ235.598, P value =.003, df =16, P <.05

 

 

Table 5 the X2 calculated value of 35.598 with corresponding P-value of .003 which is less than .05 level of significance at 16 degree of freedom. The null hypothesis of no significant difference in the utilization of ANC services among pregnant women based on age is therefore rejected. This means that utilization of ANC services differ significantly based on age.

 

Table 6

Summary of Chi-square (χ2) Analysis Testing the Null hypothesis of no significant difference in the utilization of ANC services among pregnant women based on location

 

S/n Location Urban area (n=120) Rural area (n=287) Value Df Sig. P
No

 

Yes

 

No Yes

 

O e o e o e o e
 

1

Health Education

Exclusive breast feeding

 

0

 

3.8

 

120

 

116.2

 

13

 

9.2

 

274

 

277.8

 

5.615

 

1

 

.018

2 Nutrition 2 2.7 118 117.3 7 6.3 280 280.7 .233 1 .629
3 Family planning 1 2.7 119 117.3 8 6.3 279 280.7 1.494 1 .222
4 Personal hygiene 2 2.7 118 117.3 7 6.3 280 280.7 .233 1 .629
5 Exercise 2 8.3 118 111.7 26 19.7 261 267.3 7.219 1 .007
  Cluster Value                 19.826 4 .001
 

6

Routine Drugs

Ferrous sulphate

 

0

 

1.5

 

120

 

118.5

 

5

 

3.5

 

282

 

283.5

 

2.117

 

1

 

.146

7 Folic acid 0 5.9 120 114.1 20 14.1 267 272.9 8.795 1 .003
8 Multivitamin tab 2 4.7 118 115.3 14 11.3 273 275.7 2.311 1 .128
9 Vitamin Bco 84 81.4 36 38.6 192 194.6 95 92.4 .373 1 .541
10 Vitamin C tablets 14 21.8 106 98.2 60 52.2 227 234.8 4.856 1 .028
  Cluster Value                 8.272 3 .041
 

11

Physical Examination

Abdominal palpation

 

2

 

2.9

 

118

 

117.1

 

8

 

7.1

 

279

 

279.9

 

.444

 

1

 

.505

12 Breast examination 50 43.3 70 76.7 97 103.7 190 183.3 2.271 1 .132
13 Examination of skin 57 59.9 63 60.1 146 143.1 141 143.1 .385 1 .535
14 Examination of private part 58 61.6 62 58.4 151 147.4 136 139.6 .620 1 .431
  Cluster Value                 6.172 3 .104
 

15

Screening

HIV test

 

3

 

5.6

 

117

 

114.4

 

16

 

13.4

 

271

 

273.6

 

1.798

 

1

 

.180

16 Urine T. for protein and sugar 2 9.1 118 110.9 29 21.9 258 265.1 8.562 1 .003
17 Blood test for anaemia 4 12.7 116 107.3 39 30.3 248 256.7 9.419 1 .002
18 Blood test for malaria parasite 11 26.5 109 93.5 79 63.5 208 223.5 16.561 1 .000
19 BP measurement 1 2.9 119 117.1 9 7.1 278 279.9 1.872 1 .171
  Cluster Value                 23.419 4 .000
 

20

Immunization

TT1 dose

 

6

 

8.0

 

114

 

112.0

 

21

 

19.0

 

266

 

268.0

 

.733

 

1

 

.392

21 TT2 dose 31 35.7 89 84.3 90 85.3 197 201.7 1.237 1 .266
22 TT3 dose 111 109.7 9 10.3 261 262.3 26 24.7 .262 1 .609
23 TT4 dose 118 119.1 2 .9 286 284.9 1 2.1 2.010 1 .156
24 TT5 dose 114 113.2 6 6.8 270 270.8 17 16.2 .135 1 .713
  Cluster Value                 6.170 5 .290
  Overall Value                 32.278 4 .000

            Cal χ232.278, P value =.000, df =4, P <.05

 

 

Table 6 show the X2 calculated value of 32.278 with corresponding P-value of .000 which is less than .05 level of significance at 4 degree of freedom. The null hypothesis of no significant difference in the utilization of ANC services among pregnant women based on location is therefore rejected. This means that utilization of ANC services differ significantly based on location.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 7

Summary of Chi-square (χ2) Analysis Testing the Null hypothesis of no significant difference in the utilization of ANC services among pregnant women based on parity

 

S/n Parity 1-2 children (n=148) 3-4 children (n =114) 5 children & above (n=52) first pregnancy(n =93) Value Df Sig. P
No Yes

 

No Yes

 

No

 

Yes

 

No Yes

 

O e o e o e o e o e o e o e o e
 

1

Health Education

Exclusive breast feeding

 

3

 

4.7

 

145

 

143.3

 

4

 

3.6

 

110

 

110.4

 

3

 

1.7

 

49

 

50.3

 

3

 

3.0

 

90

 

90.0

 

1.804

 

3

 

.614

2 Nutrition 3 3.3 145 144.7 2 2.5 112 111.5 1 1.1 51 50.9 3 2.1 90 90.9 .596 3 .897
3 Family planning 2 3.3 146 144.7 2 2.5 112 111.5 3 1.1 49 50.9 2 2.1 91 90.9 3.662 3 .300
4 Personal hygiene 3 3.3 145 144.7 2 2.5 112 111.5 1 1.1 51 50.9 3 2.1 90 90.9 .596 3 .897
5 Exercise 8 10.2 140 137.8 10 7.8 104 106.2 5 3.6 47 48.4 5 6.4 88 86.4 2.075 3 .557
  Cluster Value                                 15.044  12    .239
 

6

Routine Drugs

Ferrous sulphate

 

0

 

1.8

 

148

 

146.2

 

4

 

1.4

 

110

 

112.6

 

0

 

.6

 

52

 

51.4

 

1

 

1.1

 

92

 

91.9

 

7.391

 

3

 

.060

7 Folic acid 3 7.3 145 140.7 7 5.6 107 108.4 7 2.6 45 49.4 3 4.6 90 88.4 11.705 3 .008
8 Multivitamin tab 3 5.8 145 142.2 6 4.5 108 109.5 4 2.0 48 50.0 3 3.7 90 89.3 4.027 3 .259
9 Vitamin Bco 100 100.4 48 47.6 73 77.3 41 36.7 31 35.3 21 16.7 72 63.1 21 29.9 6.282 3 .099
10 Vitamin C tablets 17 26.9 131 121.1 27 20.7 87 93.3 16 9.5 36 42.5 14 16.9 79 76.1 12.930 3 .005
  Cluster Value                                 32.201 9 .000
 

11

Physical Examination

Abdominal palpation

 

2

 

3.6

 

146

 

144.4

 

6

 

2.8

 

108

 

112.1

 

0

 

1.3

 

52

 

50.7

 

2

 

2.3

 

91

 

90.7

 

5.847

 

3

 

.119

12 Breast examination 58 53.5 90 94.5 52 41.2 62 72.8 10 18.8 42 33.2 27 33.6 66 59.4 13.511 3 .004
13 Examination of skin 73 73.8 75 74.2 72 56.9 42 57.1 25 25.9 27 26.1 33 46.4 60 46.6 15.835 3 .001
14 Examination of private part 74 76.0 74 72.0 72 58.5 42 55.5 26 26.7 26 25.3 37 47.8 56 45.2 11.488 3 .009
  Cluster Value                                 27.488 9 .001
 

15

Screening

HIV test

 

4

 

6.9

 

144

 

141.1

 

8

 

5.3

 

106

 

108.7

 

3

 

2.4

 

49

 

49.6

 

4

 

4.3

 

89

 

88.7

 

2.868

 

3

 

.412

16 Urine T. for protein and sugar 12 11.3 136 136.7 10 8.7 104 105.5 5 4.0 47 48.0 4 7.1 89 85.9 2.015 3 .569
17 Blood test for anaemia 17 15.6 131 132.4 13 12.0 101 102.0 6 5.5 46 46.5 7 9.8 86 83.2 1.178 3 .758
18 Blood test for malaria parasite 21 32.7 127 115.3 31 25.2 83 88.8 23 11.5 29 40.5 15 20.6 78 72.4 23.807 3 .000
19 BP measurement 2 3.6 146 144.4 3 2.8 111 111.2 2 1.3 50 50.7 3 2.3 90 90.7 1.417 3 .701
  Cluster Value                                 38.862 12 .000
 

20

Immunization

TT1 dose

 

3

 

9.8

 

145

 

138.2

 

10

 

7.6

 

104

 

106.4

 

12

 

3.4

 

40

 

48.6

 

2

 

6.2

 

91

 

86.8

 

31.630

 

3

 

.000

21 TT2 dose 31 44.0 117 104.0 39 33.9 75 80.1 15 15.5 37 36.5 36 27.6 57 65.4 10.171 3 .017
22 TT3 dose 140 135.3 8 12.7 99 104.2 15 9.8 46 47.5 6 4.5 87 85.0 6 8.0 6.052 3 .109
23 TT4 dose 147 146.9 1 1.1 112 113.2 2 .8 52 51.6 0 .4 93 92.3 0 .7 2.697 3 .441
24 TT5 dose 146 136.6 2 8.4 105 107.6 9 6.4 41 49.1 11 2.9 92 87.7 1 5.3 33.300 3 .000
  Cluster Value                                 20.378 15 .158
  Overall Value                                 19.446 12 .078

Calχ219.446,Pvalue=.078,df=12,P>.05

 

Table 7 the X2 calculated value of 19.446 with corresponding P-value of .078 which is greater than .05 level of significance at 12 degree of freedom. The null hypothesis of no significant difference in the utilization of ANC services among pregnant women based on parity is therefore accepted. This means that utilization of ANC services does not differ significantly based on parity.

 

Discussion

Data in Table 1 showed that most (73.8) pregnant women utilized the components of ANC services. The table reveals the proportion of the respondents that utilized specific components of ANC services as follows: health education (96.7%), screening (90.5%), routine drugs (80.8%), physical examination (65.0%) and immunization (35.7%). The increase in the utilization of ANC services was expected because of the free ANC services initiated by the State and Federal Government. It is expected that pregnant women utilize ANC services to prevent pregnancy complications, improve maternal health and improve neonatal health. This result is in line with Kulkarni and Nimbalkar (2012) findings who reported that the utilization of antenatal care by pregnant women was 78.8 percent. Conversely, Awusi, Anyanwu, and Okeleke (2012) reported that, of the 200 pregnant women studied, 113 (57%) utilized ante-natal care services during pregnancy while 87 (43%) did not. Furthermore, Adewoye, Musa, Atoyebi and Babatunde (2013) reported that there was high antenatal care utilization, (76.8%) among pregnant women. Similarly, Chukwuma, Uche, Kelechi, Kelvin, Irene, Henry and Chima (2015) indicated that a good proportion of the mothers (90.1%) utilized antenatal services, at least, once during their most recent pregnancies, while 80.3% had skilled attendants at delivery.

Data in Table 2 showed that, pregnant women aged 46 years and above (33.3%) recorded the highest utilization of ANC services, followed by pregnant women aged 33-45 years (28.9%), below 19 years (28.6) and 19-25 years (24.6%). This means that pregnant women aged 46 years and above utilized ANC services more than others. This finding is expected because pregnant women at these age bracket (46 years and above) had various experiences/ complications which may prompt them to utilize ANC services; more so, pregnant women at these age group are at high risk of pregnancy complications. Even though pregnant women aged 19 years and below are also at high risk of pregnancy complications but, they may not utilize ANC services due to fear of stigmatization and feeling of shame. However, Overbosch et al (2002) stated that, pregnancy is a natural process and pregnant women with some experience due to their age might consider utilization of ANC services less necessary. In contrast, the author further reported that women aged above 45 years are also possibly more confident and influential in decision making which may prompt them to utilize ANC services than women below 20 years. In addition, Burgard (2004) reported that early age pregnant women are more likely to suffer from severe complications during pregnancy, which may result in higher morbidity and mortality for both themselves and their fetuses; this may trigger them to utilize ANC services. Furthermore, older women may belong to older traditional cohorts and thus be less likely to use modern facilities than young women (Navaneetham & Dharmalingam, 2002).

Result in Table 5 showed that there was significant difference in the utilization of ANC services among pregnant women based on age. This finding is expected because Burgard (2004) view mother’s age to play an important role in utilization of ANC services, though the direction of the effect is often contradictory.

Based on location of the pregnant women in the study as indicated in Table 3, pregnant women in rural area (26.9%) utilized ANC services than their counterparts in the urban area (23.4%). This is perplexing and unexpected because pregnant women who live in urban area are supposed to be more civilized and advanced; these should prompt them to utilize ANC services more. This finding is not congener with that of Abor and Abekah (2009) that urban dwellers may utilize ANC services more than rural dwellers due to distance from health facility. Similarly, Overbosch et al. (2002) reported that currently, utilization of ANC services prompts a number of rural women to travel more than 5km to the health facilities. This shows that urban dwellers may utilize ANC services more than their rural counterpart. In the same way, Chakraborty (2003) stated that proximity to a health facility has been found to affect the utilization of ANC services especially in rural areas as these facilities are usually located at long distances. Moreso, Celik and Hotchkiss, (2012) concluded that differential access to health care facilities between the rural and urban centres reduced utilization of ANC services for the rural dwellers.

Result Table 6 showed that there was significant difference in the utilization of ANC services among pregnant women based on location. This finding implies that location influences utilization of ANC services. This finding is expected and have collaborates with that of Acharya and Cleland, (2000) who reported a negative effect of distance and/ or travel time to ANC utilization. In contrast, Overbosch et al., (2002) reported a positive association with quality of ANC services. Place of residence (rural/urban) and geographical location (region) may also affect the utilization of ANC services; urban dwellers may be relatively closer to health care facilities than rural dwellers in most developing countries (Abor & Abekah, 2009).

Based on parity of the pregnant women as indicated in Table 4, pregnant women who had 3-4 children (28.1%) recorded the highest utilization of ANC services followed by pregnant women who had 5 children and above (27.0%) and those with first pregnancy (24.7) while respondents with 1-2 children (24.5%) recorded the lowest. Little or no surprise came from this result in view of available literature. Magadi (2005) revealed that, women with 2-4 children ever born were twice as likely to utilize ANC services as women with only one child. In contrast, due to uncertainty and the perception of risk associated with first pregnancies, women are more likely to utilize ANC services for first-order births than subsequent ones. Moreover, having many children may cause resource constraint, which has been found to be negatively associated with ANC services utilization (Chakraborty, 2003). Similarly, the greater confidence and experience of the older and higher parity women, together with greater responsibilities within the household and for child care, have been suggested as explanatory factors for their tendency to use services less frequently (Kwast & Liff, 2008). Furthermore, if a woman ever had a stillbirth in a previous pregnancy, the utilzation of ANC services would be higher because of known risk involve in childbirth (Furuta & Salway, 2006).

Table 7 showed that there was no significant difference in the utilization of ANC services among pregnant women based on parity. This implies that utilization of ANC services is the same according to different parity status of pregnant women. Literature has it that parity has a strong relationship that has been shown to exist between birth order and utilization of ANC services (Kamal, 2009). However, Raghupathy (2006) reported that a higher number of previous pregnancies are associated with less utilization of ANC services. This means that number of living children of the pregnant women may affect her utilization of ANC services.

 

Conclusion

Based on the result of the findings, the following conclusions were drawn:

  1. Overall per cent (73.8%) proportion of pregnant women utilizing of ANC services. Pregnant women aged 46 years and above recorded the highest (33.3%) while those aged 19-25 years recorded the lowest (24.6%) utilization of ANC service.
  2. Slightly lower of proportion of pregnant women in rural area (26.9%) recorded the highest while pregnant women in the urban area (23.4%) reported lowest utilization of ANC services.
  3. Proportion of ANC services utilization based on parity by pregnant women with 3-4 children (28.1%) recorded the highest while pregnant women with 1-2 children (24.5%) reported lowest.
  4. There was significant difference in the utilization of ANC services among pregnant women based on age and location among pregnant women, while was no significant difference in the utilization of ANC services among pregnant women based on parity.

 

Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study,     the following recommendations were made:

  1. Health education and campaign on adequate utilization of antenatal care services (especially physical examination & immunization) should be conducted by health educators and other health care professionals regularly at health centres, schools, churches, social media, among others.
  2. Also, contentiousness of staff to patients should be advocated by ANC clinics so that more pregnant women (particularly young mothers) will be encouraged to utilize ANC services.
  3. Government should provide more health care centres in various areas in order to avoid distance as being an excuse of location of health care centre, or if possible, vehicles be provided to various local government to bring about efficient transportation to the health care centres.
  4. Campaigns against social norms that is harmful to women’s health such as early marriage and high parity; and stigmatization of unwed teenage mothers.

 

References

Dairo, M. D., & Owoyokun K. E. (2010). Factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care services in Ibadan, Nigeria. Journal of Post graduate Medicine. 12,1-6.

Emelumadu, O.F., Ukegbu, A. U., Ezeama, N.N., Kanu, O.O. Ifeadike, C.O. & Onyeonoro, U. (2015). Socio‑Demographic Determinants of Maternal Health‑Care Service Utilization Among Rural Women in Anambra State, South East Nigeria, Reproductive Sciences DOI: 10.4236/arsci.2015.33005.

Federal Ministry of Health. (2005). National Reproductive Health Policy and Strategy. Abuja, Nigeria: Federal Ministry of Health.

Federal ministry of health. (2012). Road map for accelerating the attainments of MDGs related to maternal and newborn health in Nigeria.

Fosu, G. B. (2011). “Childhood morbidity and health services utilization: cross national comparisons of user-related factors from DHS data”, Social Science Medicine, 38, (9) 1209-1220.

Gemson, G.S. & Kyamru, J.I. (2013). Theory and practice of research methods for the health and social sciences (Rev ed). Jalingo: Livingstone Educational Publishing Enterprise (Nig).

Ikeoluwapo, O. A, Damilola, C. Osakinle, (2013). Socio demographic factors determining the adequacy of antenatal care among pregnant women visiting Ekiti State primary health centres. Available from: http://www.reproductive-health-journal.com/content/pdf/1742-4755-6-9.pdf .

Jibo, A. A. (2005). Utilization of antenatal services at the Provincial Hospital, Mongomo, Guinea Equatoria. African Journal Reproductive Health,7, 49-54.

Magadi, M. A., Agwanda, A. O., & Obare, F. O. (2007). A comparative analysis of the use of maternal health services between teenagers and older mothers in sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Social Science Medicine 64:1311–1323.

Onah, H. E., Ikeako, L. C., & Iloabachie, G. C. (2006). ‘Factors associated with the use of maternity services in Enugu south east Nigeria’. Social Sciences Medicine, 2006 Oct; 63(7): 1870-78 [Online] Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.liv.ac.uk/science.

Toan, T. K.  (2012). Antenatal And Delivery Care Utilization  in Urban and Rural Contexts in Vietnam: A study in two health and demographic surveillance sites, thesis at the Nordic School of Public Health NHV  Gothenburg, Sweden.

UNDP (2016). Socio-cultural influences on the reproductive health of migrant women: A review of literature in Vitenam. Hanoi: Vietnam Country Office.

Villar, J. (2012) WHO antenatal care randomised trial for the evaluation of a new model of routine antenatal care. The Lancet 357(9268), 1551–1564.

WHO (2005). The World Health Report 2005. WHO, Geneva. World Health Organization .The World Health Report (2005), Geneva.

WHO (2009). Improved accesses to maternal health services. WHO 98.7, Geneva.

WHO (2010). The WHO Antenatal Care: Randomized Controlled Trial- Manual for implementation of the new model. In: WHO programme to map best reproductive health practices, Geneva.

WHO (2012). Save the Children: Women on the Front Lines of Health Care: State of the World’s Mothers, Connecticut, USA.

WHO, UNICEF & UNFPA (2007). Advocacy Brief: In Family Planning/Child Birth Spacing for Health and national Development Action Points for Policymaker. Produced by the Federal Ministry of Health with support from ENHANCE project/USAID.

 

 

Knowledge of Coping Strategies of Menopause Possessed by Female Non-Academic Staff of University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Prince C.I. Umoke1*, C.B. Onwe2& Maryjoy Umoke3

 

1,2 Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

3 Ebonyi State Ministry of Health, Abakiliki

* Corresponding Author: prince.umoke@unn.edu.ng

 

Abstract

Menopause is a permanent and natural occurring stage in the life of every woman. It is a sign of end of reproductive life of women. However, irrespective of the fact that menopause is a natural and compulsory stage of a woman’s life, women face some difficulties when it comes. Women require coping strategies in order to adjust with menopause. The study investigated the knowledge of coping strategies among female non-academic staff of University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State.  The population covered 821 female non-academic staff. The multi stage sampling technique was used to pick 270 female non-academics. The reliability of the instrument was tested using Cronbach alpha and reliability coefficient of 0.70 was established. Results revealed that overall level of knowledge of coping strategies for menopause posed by female non-academic staff was high irrespective of age and level of education. Also, there was no significant difference in the knowledge of coping strategies by the respondents based on age and level of education. It was recommended among others that awareness program on menopause be mounted for women of reproductive age which will help them to be aware of menopausal symptoms and coping strategies before getting to that stage.

 

Keywords: Menopause, women, coping strategies, age, education

 

Introduction

Due to increased population growth in both developed and developing countries, the population of menopausal women is rapidly increasing globally (Igbokwe, 2011). Statistically, it was estimated that in 1998, there were over 477 million postmenopausal women in the world and this number is projected to rise to 1.2 billion by the year 2030, with most of the increase occurring in developing countries (Ibraheem, Oyewole & Olaseha, 2015). In 2010, there were nearly 400 million women worldwide (Nigeria inclusive) of menopausal age, and about 500 million women will be entering the menopause transition over the next 5 to 10 years (United States Census Bureau, 2010).

Greater proportion of the female population in Nigeria are in their menopausal phase and as a result experience some signs and symptoms associated with menopause (Ibraheem, Oyewole & Olaseha, 2015). The National Population Commission (NPC), (2009) stated that Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey of 2008 documented the percentage of menopausal women as 9.4 percent. This notwithstanding, the International menopause society asserted that Africa, especially Nigeria, is usually missing from international medical conferences or forums that discuss menopause-related issues despite the increasing population of menopausal females (Ibraheem, Oyewole & Olaseha, 2015). However, menopause is an issue that is insufficiently acknowledged and has not received adequate attention from any quarter of the Nigerian society. Despite the call by World Health Organization (WHO) in 1980 and 1990 on all member states to review the existing information on menopause and make recommendations for future and clinical practice, little is known about issues relating to menopause in Nigeria (WHO, 2001). The challenge of providing adequate knowledge for women reaching menopause is a question far removed from the authorities and the lack of policy in this regard is a major hurdle (Arkutu, 2005). In addition, Adekunle, Fawole and Okunlola (2010) opined that major cultural differences exists which to a large extent influence several characteristics and knowledge of women on the subject of menopause. Consequently, many Nigerian women reach menopause age without knowing anything about the symptoms of this period and how to deal with them. Therefore, they face menopause with basic confusion, discouragement, contradiction and fears that something abnormal is happening to them. However, the concept of menopause is interpreted differently by different authors; hence there are various views and definitions of the concept.

World Health Organization WHO (2001), defined menopause as the permanent cessation of menstruation as a result of the loss of ovarian follicular activity. Zieve (2010), Igbokwe (2011), Lee, Kim, Park, Yang and Joe (2010), Anderson (2014) Ilo, Agbapuonwu, Okeke, Makachi, Orji & Odira, 2015, Aime, Andre & Remond 2017 defined menopause as a term used to describe the permanent cessation of the primary function of the human ovaries; the ripening and release of ova and the release of hormones that cause both the creation of the uterine lining and the subsequent shedding of the uterine lining  (menstruation) after at least twelve months.

The average age of menopause varies from population to population. Shakila, Sridharan and Thiyagarajan (2014) asserted that the average age of menopause is between the ages of 45 and 55 years worldwide. Southin (2010) opined that the average age for menopause in Nigeria is 48.4 years. Surprisingly, while menopause is naturally triggered, the normal cycle of a woman’s reproductive system can be interrupted by some factors thereby bringing on menopause earlier than normal. This is known as premature menopause.

Menopause is linked with several symptoms. These symptoms include: hot flushes, night sweats, vaginal atrophy, sleeping problems, fatigue, headache, shortness of breath, weight gain, increased facial hair, emotional problems like irritability, depression, anxiety cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence among others (Ozumba, Obi, Obikili & Waboso (2005), Borker, Venugopalan & Bhat, (2013) , Saima, Fatma, Hanan, Khawla, Noura, & Fatma, (2014) and, Shakila, Sridharan & Thiyagarajan, (2014). Menopausal symptoms will affect each woman differently and it is not possible to predict the severity and duration of these symptoms (Shakila, Sridharan & Thiyagarajan, 2014).

In a study conducted by Nwosu in (2002), he asserted that if the symptoms that women battle with in menopause are not well managed, this can affect their health negatively. However, a barren woman who has some hope that God will give her a child some day or a spinster with hopes of getting married or a married woman with children of same sex can be thrown into emotional health problems at the advent of menopause.

However, the most difficult task in menopause is the way to prevent and/or manage the stress, depression, emotions and other symptoms which present health problems for menopausal women. As a result of this, Igbokwe (2011) opined that the challenges of menopause necessitate the need for coping strategies since menopause is something that is inevitable. In addition, Derek and Lievellyn (2008) asserted that the ability of women to successfully go through the menopausal period and live satisfactorily afterwards depend on their level of knowledge of menopause and the adoption of appropriate strategies to cope with it.

Coping is when one reduces the stress of some difficult challenge by anticipating what it will be like and preparing for how to deal with it. Coping has been defined in psychological terms as constantly changing cognitive and behavioural efforts to manage specific external and or internal demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person (Yazdkhasti, Simbar & Abdi, 2015).

Strategy is a careful plan designed to achieve a particular purpose. Business Dictionary (2017) defined strategy as a method or plan chosen to bring about a desired future, such as achievement of a goal or solution to a problem. Park (2007) is of the view that the purpose of strategizing is to match the limited resources with the problems in other to eliminate and to develop the best course of action or change. However, when coping relates to strategy, it is known as coping strategy.

Coping strategy is a behaviour that helps us to function better in a given situation. Coping strategies allows people to use various skills to manage the difficulties they face in life and the appropriate strategy one adopts is mostly determined by their personality and also by the type of stressors and level of stress in the situation associated with the individual (Nwosu, 2002). Coping strategies refer to the specific efforts both behavioural and psychological that people employ to master, tolerate, reduce or minimize stressful events (Rotem, Kushnir, Levine & Ehrenfeld, 2005). In the context of this study, coping strategy is simply the behaviour employed by menopausal women to improve their adaptation to menopause symptoms, and eventually promote their quality of life at this stage.

In coping with menopause, Bhore (2015) identified three strategies. They are categorized as: Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT), alternative medicine and healthy lifestyle changes. HRT has risks as well as benefits. HRT has been found to increase the risk of breast cancer, heart disease and stroke.

Healthy lifestyle is a disciplined way of life that promotes healthy living habits and attitudes and discourages behaviours injurious to individual and community health. Barclift and Jones (2012),Bahadir, Certel and Topuz (2014) maintained that healthy lifestyle is a way of life that encourages personal hygiene, rest and relaxation, regular physical exercise, healthy nutrition, stress management, safety habits, safe sex, dietary or nutritional supplements, and non-substance use reduces health problems during menopause (Nwoke & Onyeocha, 2008). The next coping strategy to be discussed is physical exercise.

Physical exercise is a key contributor to overall musculoskeletal health, because of the responsiveness of bone to the mechanical forces that physical activity places on it. Regular physical exercise is necessary to support bone and heart health, improve sleep, lift mood, maintain body weight and prevent other health conditions associated with weight gain, maintain pelvic strength (Aniodo, 2011 & Godoy, Guevara, Galvan, Ballesferos, Gacia and Juan 2017). Having examined three of the coping strategies for menopause, we can now take a look at knowledge.

Knowledge is essential in every facet of life. It is paramount to an individual’s quality of life because everything we do depends on what we know. WHO (2000), Cavell (2002), Stuart and Acheterberg (2004), asserted that knowledge is prerequisite for good health by making an individual capable of taking different or more effective action. The next item to be discussed will be female non-academic staff of University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Female non-academic staff are female employees within an academic environment whose jobs do not involve teaching. Their job description within the academic environment is majorly administrative, technical or professional. However, these female non-academic staff having adequate knowledge of menopause and its coping strategies will help them understand the body changes that occur at this stage and how to cope effectively with the symptoms these changes present. Female non-academic staff as used in this study constitutes the senior female administrative staff.

However, knowledge of menopause and its coping strategies possessed by female nonacademic staff is capable of being influenced by some socio-demographic factors such as age, and educational qualification. Therefore, the study identified educational qualification and age as such factors capable of influencing the knowledge of menopause and its coping strategies possessed by female non-academic staff. Educational qualification is a crucial factor that can predict knowledge of female non-academic staff towards menopause and its coping strategies. It is believed that the higher the educational level of an individual, the higher the chances of exposure to certain information, thereby increasing the individual’s knowledge (Daba, Beyene, Fekadu & Garoma, 2013). One of the variables to be discussed is Age.

Age also can have some degree of influence on knowledge of menopause and its coping strategies possessed by female non-academic staff. Age brings about maturity and maturity put one in a position to seek information about certain issues (Addai, 2008). This study is anchored on Health Belief Model.

University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN) is one of the Federal Universities located in Enugu State, South-Eastern Zone of Nigeria. The University is located in the heart of Nsukka town. It is a co-educational community that hosts a good number of students from all over the country and beyond undertaking varieties of programmes. The inhabitants of University of Nigeria, Nsukka are predominantly students and staff (academic and non-academic). The campus was chosen as the location for the study because there are numerous female non-academic staff in UNN.  It is necessary to find out their knowledge of menopause and its coping strategies because having proper knowledge of menopause and its coping strategies will help them to be able to adapt effectively to their work while experiencing the symptoms of menopause.

 

Statement of the problem.

Menopause is not a disease but a condition associated with hormonal changes where ooestrogen diminishes to a low level causing health related symptoms. Appropriate understanding of women that menopause is associated with certain body changes will help them with greater readiness to cope with these changes. Also, having proper knowledge regarding menopause and it’s coping strategies helps women to handle menopause transition like a normal part of life, just like puberty (Saima, Fatma, Hanan, Khawla, Noura, Fatma. 2014, &Aime, Ardre, Raymond 2017).

Consequently, it has been observed that some of these women in their mid-forties always complain of symptoms related to menopause and often mistake these symptoms to one health problem or the other. Some of these women also claim that they are poisoned or are being attacked spiritually. Thus, this situation justifies the present study which is aimed at determining the knowledge of menopause and its coping strategies possessed by female non-academic staff of University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

The purpose of the study is to ascertain the knowledge of menopause and coping strategies of menopause possessed by female non-academic staff of University of Nigeria Nsukka.

Specifically, the study sought to determine the:

  1. Level of knowledge of coping strategies of menopause possessed by female non-academic staff of University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  2. Level of knowledge of coping strategies of menopause possessed by female-non-academic staff of University of Nigeria, Nsukka based on age.
  3. Level of knowledge of coping strategies of menopause possessed by female non-academic staff of University of Nigeria, Nsukka based on educational qualification.

To guide this study, the following research questions were posed:

  1. What is the level of knowledge of coping strategies for menopause possessed by female non-academic staff of University of Nigeria, Nsukka?
  2. What is the level of knowledge of coping strategies for menopause possessed by female non-academic staff of University of Nigeria, Nsukka based on age?
  3. What is the level of knowledge of coping strategies for menopause possessed by female non-academic staff of University of Nigeria, Nsukka based on educational qualification?

 

The following null hypotheses were postulated for the study and were tested at 0.05 level of significance.

  1. There is no significant difference in the level of knowledge of coping strategies for menopause possessed by female non-academic staff of University of Nigeria, Nsukka based on age.
  2. There is no significant difference in the level of knowledge of coping strategies for menopause possessed by female non-academic staff of University of Nigeria, Nsukka based on educational qualification.

 

Method

The study adopted descriptive survey design which is suitable for this type of study Udo & Joseph (2005). University of Nigeria Nsukka was the area of study. The population of the study consisted of all the senior female administrative staff (821) academic planning unit, University of Nigeria Nsukka, 2017. The sample size of 270 females’ respondents were used for the study using Taro (Nworgu 2015). Simple random sampling was employed to selected 6 departments each from the selected faculties to ensure that each dept is selected.

A researcher designed questionnaire known as knowledge of coping strategies menopause questionnaire (KOMAKOSO) was used to collect data from the respondents. The face validly of KOMAKOSO was established through the judgement of the experts from Human Kinetics and Heath Education UNN, Nsukka. The instrument was administered to 20 senior female administrative staff in UNN Enugu Campus (UNEC) and after the use of Cronbach alpha a reliability coefficient was .70 which is considered reliable according to Ogbazi, & Okpala (1994). In order to gain access to the respondents, a letter was collected from the head of department Human Kinetics & Health Education UNN. The completed copies were collected with the help of two research assistants. Data was analysed using frequency, percentages and chi-square.

 

 

 

Results

The findings of the study are presented in Tables according to data answering research questions and data testing the postulated hypotheses.

Table 1

Level of Knowledge of Coping Strategies for Menopause Possessed by Female Non-Academic Staff (n=260)

 

 

S/N          Item Statement                                                      Correct                  Incorrect

                                                                                               Responses             Responses

                                                                                               f (%)                     f (%)                  

 

  1. One way of coping with menopause that is not 96 (36.9)              164 (63.1)

associated with health risk is through healthy

lifestyle changes

  1. One appropriate healthy lifestyle for coping with 206 (79.2)            54 (20.8)

menopausal syndrome is through engaging in

physical exercise

  1. Drinking palm wine daily is an inappropriate way for 199 (76.5)            61 (23.5)

coping with menopausal syndrome.

Overall %                                                                               64.2                     35.8

 

Key: 0-9% = Very low; 10-39% = Low; 40-59% = Moderate; 60-79% = High; 80% & above = Very high.

 

Data in Table 1 show that the overall percentage of female non-academic staff level of knowledge of coping strategies for menopause was high (64.2%). Data in table further show the level of knowledge of specific items possessed by female non-academic staff as follows: low knowledge (36.9%) of healthy lifestyle as coping strategy for menopause that is not associated with health risk, high knowledge (79.2%) of physical exercise as the appropriate healthy lifestyle for coping with menopausal syndrome and high knowledge (76.5%) of drinking palm wine daily as inappropriate way for coping with menopausal syndrome.

 

Table 2

Level of Knowledge of Coping Strategies for Menopause Possessed by Female-Non-Academic Staff Based on Age (n=260)

 

 

< 30years (n=72)                        30-49years (n=170)               50years & above (n=18)

S/N          Item Statement                                                   Correct          Incorrect         Correct          Incorrect         Correct         Incorrect    

                                                                                      Responses     Responses       Reesponses    Responses       Responses    Responses

                                                                                      f (%)            f (%)               f (%)             f (%)              f (%)           f (%)                                          

 

 

  1. One way of coping with menopause that is not 33 (45.8)    39 (54.2)       52 (30.6)     118 (69.4)    11 (61.1)     7 (38.9)

associated with health risk is through healthy

lifestyle changes

  1. One appropriate healthy lifestyle for coping 61 (84.7)   11 (15.3)       130 (76.5)    40 (23.5)     15 (83.3)    3 (16.7)

with menopausal syndrome is through engaging

in physical exercise

  1. Drinking palm wine daily is an inappropriate    51 (70.8)   21 (29.2)       132 (77.6)    38 (22.4)     16 (88.9)    2 (11.1)

way for coping with menopausal syndrome.

Overall %                                                67.1          32.2              61.6             38.4              77.8        22.2                                                                          

 

 

Key: 0-9% = Very low; 10-39% = Low; 40-59% = Moderate; 60-79% = High; 80% & above = Very high.

 

Data in Table 2 show that overall, female non-academic staff regardless of their age had high knowledge of coping strategies for menopause. Female non-academic staff in age group 50years & above had higher knowledge (77.8%) of coping strategies for menopause than female non-academics in age group > 30years (67.1%) and age group 30-49years (61.6%). This implies that older female non-academics had higher knowledge of coping strategies for menopause than other age categories.

 

Table 3

Level of Knowledge of Coping Strategies for Menopause Possessed by Female-Non-Academic Staff Based on Age (n=260)

 

 

                                                                                                                NCE (n=39)                       HND /B.Sc/ B.Ed (n=163)         M.Ed /M.Sc/ M.Eng & above                                                                                                         

S/N          Item statement                                              Correct          Incorrect        Correct           Incorrect        Correct         Incorrect    

                                                                                 Responses     Responses      Reesponses     Responses      Responses    Responses

                                                                                 f (%)            f (%)              f (%)              f (%)             f (%)           f (%)                   

 

  1. One way of coping with menopause that is 13 (33.3)    26 (66.7)       60 (36.8)    103 (63.2)    23 (39.7)     35 (60.3)

not associated with health risk is through

healthy lifestyle changes

  1. One appropriate healthy lifestyle for coping 30 (76.9)   9 (23.1)       127 (77.9)     36 (22.1)     49 (84.5)    9 (15.5)

with menopausal syndrome is through

engaging in physical exercise

  1. Drinking palm wine daily is an inappropriate 30 (76.9)   9 (23.1)       125 (76.7)     38 (23.3)     44 (75.9)    14 (24.1)

way for coping with menopausal syndrome.

Overall %62.4  37.6   63.8  36.2    66.7  33.3

 

Key: 0-9% = Very low; 10-39% = Low; 40-59% = Moderate; 60-79% = High; 80% & above = Very high.

 

Data in Table 3 show that overall, female non-academic staff irrespective of their educational qualification had high knowledge of coping strategies for menopause. Female non-academic staff with M.Ed/M.Sc./M.Eng & above had higher knowledge (66.7%) of coping strategies for menopause than those with HND/B.Sc/B.Ed (63.8%) and NCE (62.4%). This implies that female non-academic staff with M.Ed/M.Sc./M.Eng & above had higher knowledge of coping strategies for menopause than other categories. Data in Table 6 also shows that regardless of educational qualification, female non-academic staff specifically had low knowledge of healthy lifestyle as coping strategy for menopause that is not associated with health risk. Female non-academic staff with M.Ed/M.Sc./M.Eng & above, HND/B.Sc/B.Ed and NCE had low knowledge (39.7%, 36.8% and 33.3% respectively) of healthy lifestyle as coping strategy for menopause that is not associated with health risk.

 

Hypotheses one.

There is no significant difference in the level of knowledge of coping strategies for menopause possessed by female non-academic staff of University of Nigeria, Nsukka based on age.

 

Table 4

Summary of Chi-Square Analysis of No Significant Difference in the Level of Knowledge of Coping Strategies for Menopause Possessed by Female Non-Academic Staff Based on Age (n=260)

 

 

Correct               Incorrect

  Variable                           N           O (E)                   O(E)            -value    df        Sig. 

 

< 30years                            72          55 (52.6)              17 (19.4)

30-40 years                         170        120 (124.2)           50 (45.8)       1.899       2         .387

50 years & above                 18         15(13.2)               3 (4.8)

 

 

 

Key: O = Observed frequency; E = Expected frequency; df = Degree of freedom; Sig. = Significance.

 

The Chi-Square test for independence shows no significant difference ( = .387, df = 2, Sig. = .387 > .05) in the level of knowledge of coping strategies for menopause possessed by female non-academic staff based on age. Since the Sig. was greater than .05 level of significance at 2 degree of freedom, the null hypotheses of no significant difference was therefore not rejected. This implies that female non-academic staff did not differ in their knowledge of coping strategies for menopause based on age.

 

Hypotheses two.

There is no significant difference in the level of knowledge of coping strategies for menopause possessed by female non-academic staff of University of Nigeria, Nsukka based on educational qualification.

 

Table 5

Summary of Chi-Square Analysis of No Significant Difference in the Level of Knowledge of Coping Strategies for Menopause Possessed by Female Non-Academic Staff Based on Educational Qualification (n=260)

 

Correct               Incorrect

  Variable                             N           O (E)                  O (E)            -value    df        Sig. 

 

NCE                                      39          27 (28.5)              12 (10.5)

HND/B.Sc/B.Ed                 163         120 (119.1)          43 (43.9)     .351           2        .839

M.Ed/M.Sc/M.Eng  & above           58          43(42.4)               15 (15.6)

 

 

 

Key: O = Observed frequency; E = Expected frequency; df = Degree of freedom; Sig. = Significance

 

The Chi-Square test for independence shows no significant difference ( = .351, df =2, Sig. = .839 > .05) in the level of knowledge of coping strategies for menopause possessed by female non-academic staff based on educational qualification. Since the Sig. was greater than .05 level of significance at 2 degree of freedom, the null hypotheses of no significant difference was therefore not rejected. This implies that female non-academic staff did not differ in their knowledge of coping strategies for menopause based on educational qualification.

 

Discussion

            Findings from Table 1 and 2 showed that overall, female non-academic staff possessed high knowledge of coping strategies for menopause. These finding was expected and not surprising because knowledge of coping strategies for menopause is expected to help women adapt effectively to the symptoms of menopause. These findings are in consonance with Nwoke and Onyeocha (2008) who recommended that in-house seminars and workshops should be periodically organized by health and allied educators to enlighten women on health promoting strategies for menopause.

The study revealed that irrespective of age, female non-academic staff possessed high knowledge of coping strategies for menopause. Female non-academic staff in age group 50years & above possessed slightly high knowledge of coping strategies for menopause than those in age group <30years and age group 30-49years. The difference was not significant; however, as Table 8 revealed that there was no significant difference in the level of knowledge of coping strategies for menopause possessed by female non-academic staff based on age. These findings are expected and not surprising because female non-academic staff irrespective of age are expected to have good knowledge of coping strategies for menopause. This is in line with Elkazeh and El-zeftawy (2015) who found that there is no significant difference in the level of knowledge of preventive health behaviours for menopause among women and their age. Shakila, Sridharan and Thiyagarajan (2014) asserted that regular exercise, taking the right foods and food supplements is a key to improving and maintaining overall health of an individual including the health of menopausal women.

Moreover, regardless of educational qualification, female non-academic staff possessed high knowledge of coping strategies for menopause. Female non-academic staff with M.Ed/M.Sc/M.Eng possessed slight higher knowledge than other categories (M.Ed/M.Sc/M.Eng > HND/B.Sc/B.Ed > NCE). The difference was not significant; however, as Table 10 showed that there was no significant difference in the level of knowledge of coping strategies for menopause based on educational qualification. This finding is expected and not surprising because one would expect female non-academic staff to have good knowledge of coping strategies for menopause as menopause is a natural and universal event in the reproductive of women. The findings is in contrast with Nwoke and Onyeocha (2008) who asserted that educational attainment is known to affect the health promotion strategies adopted by menopausal women.

 

Conclusion

  1. Overall, level of knowledge of coping strategies for menopause possessed by female non-academic staff was high irrespective of age and level of education. Also there was no significant difference in the level of knowledge of coping strategies for menopause possessed by female non-academic staff based on Age and educational qualification.

 

Recommendations

Awareness programme on menopause should be conducted for women in reproductive age. This will help them to be aware of menopausal symptoms before entering menopause so that they can cope effectively with them.

 

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Knowledge, Beliefs About Cervical Cancer Among Women of Childbearing Age in Abia State

Elizabeth Chibuzor Okafor1*& E. S. Samuel2

1, 2 Department of Human Kinetic and Health Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

* Corresponding Author

 

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to determine the knowledge, beliefs about cervical cancer among women of childbearing age (WCA) in Abia State. The descriptive survey research design was used for the study. The population of the study comprised of 766,723 WCA in Abia State. The sample size for the study consisted of 630 respondents, selected using multistage sampling procedure. The instruments for data collection were the researcher’s structured questionnaire and focus group discussion guide which were validated by three research experts from Department of Human Kinetic and Health Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The reliability of the instruments was also established and reliability co-efficient of .74 was obtained. Data collected were analysed using means, frequencies and percentages. The results of the findings showed that the level of knowledge of cervical cancer by WCA were low (39.18%). Majority (89.8%) of WCA did not believe that cervical cancer is for old women, is never curable, is caused by evil spirits, witchcrafts or enemies and that screening is for married women only. There was significant difference in the level of knowledge of cervical cancer by WCA based on age and level of education, (p<0.05). Based on the findings, conclusions were drawn and it was recommended that WCA should be educated on cervical cancer to create awareness using cervical cancer prevention programme (CCPP) developed by the author.

Keywords: Cervical Cancer, Knowledge, Belief, Women of Childbearing Age

 

Introduction

Cervical cancer is a serious public health problem facing women all over the world. It is even a more serious health problem in the developing countries like Nigeria as the incidence as fast growing in Sub-Sahara Africa (Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention ACCP, 2004). According to Sheries, Herdman and Elias (2001), the incidence of cervical cancer is highest in central and Latin America, South Asia, Sub-Sahara Africa and Melanesia. For instance, an incident rate of 54 per 100,000 and 46 per 100,000 is reported in Zimbabwe and Guinea respectively (Program for Appropriate Technology on Health- PATH 2000). It has become a rare disease in developed countries due to high level of awareness and screening programmes. Evidence of the decline in the incidence has been observed in countries like United State of America (USA) where there is established screening protocol (Ndikom and Ofi, 2012). China has observed an increased in the cervical cancer incidence rate in younger females (25-44years of age) within a context of a growing cancer burden (Hong, Zhang, Li, Lin&Liu, 2013). For instance, in China the incidence rate, of cervical cancer was 0.21 per 100,000 among women aged 20 to 24 from 1988 to 1992 but jumped to 1.35 per 100,000 from 1998 to 2002. The problems associated with cervical cancer incidence include late reporting, cultural issues, ignorance or lack of awareness, nonchalant attitude to health and financial constraint of women (Sue, 2006; Anorlu, 2008; Marliyya, 2010).

The true incidence of cervical cancer in many African countries is unknown as there is gross under reporting. Only very few countries have functional cancer registries and record keeping is minimal or non-existent in many countries. Some figures quoted in the literature are hospital based which represent a small fraction of women dying from cervical cancer as most women cannot access hospital care and die at home (Anorlu, 2008). A mortality rate of 35 per 100,000 is reported in Eastern Africa, the reported mortality rate in developed countries with successful screening programmes seldom exceed 5 per 100,000 women (Parkin, whelam & Ferley, 2002).  McCarey, Pirek, Tebeu, Boulvain, Doh and Petignat (2011) observed that limited access to screening and treatment facilities is the main reason for high incidence of cervical cancer in low resource setting countries. They posited that countries that have organized screening programmes have substantially reduced cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The actual burden of the disease in Nigeria is unknown due to lack of adequate cancer statistics. However, Ndikom and Ofi (2012) reported that records from cancer registry at University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan indicated that the incidence is high. It was 353 out of 1942 of total malignancies in 2007 (Ndikom & Ofi, 2012).

The impact of cervical cancer in developing countries is huge. Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in developing countries (Ashford & Collymore, 2004). It is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and the most common in developing countries which bear eighty percent of the global burden of the disease (World Health Organization WHO, 2010). It is the second leading cancer among women after breast cancer in Nigeria (Anorlu, 2008). Marliyya (2010) stated that it is the commonest malignancy among women in Northern Nigeria. At Lagos University Teaching Hospital LUTH, 4-6 new cases of advanced cervical cancer are seen each week (Anorlu, 2008). Many of these women go untreated, mostly due to lack of access to health care and cultural constraints. Women in sub-Sahara Africa die more of cervical cancer than any other type of cancer (Anorlu, 2008). Unfortunately, it affects them at a time of life when they are socially and economically relevant to their families.

Globally, over a million women currently have cervical cancer (World Health Organisation, WHO, 2014). In 2012, 528,000 new cases were diagnosed and 266,000 women died from the disease and nearly 90 per cent are from developing countries. The situation is now complicated by high prevalence of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) infection which is associated with rapid progression of invasive cervical cancer (Urasa & Darj, 2011). Cervical cancer is the single largest killer of middle age woman in Nigeria (Anorlu, 2008). The disease occurs in women thirty-five years and forty years, then reaches a maximum in women in their fifties and sixties (ACCP, 2004).

Cervical cancer is a disease that results from changes in the cells in the cervix which progress to become cancerous overtime and can invade nearby tissues and other organs. ACCP, (2004) defined cervical cancer as a disease that results from abnormal growth and division of cells at the cervix, if left untreated will become cancerous. Cervical cancer is a malignant disease that occurs at the cervix and metastasize (spread) to other parts and organs of the body (Monga & Dobbs, 2011). Obiekwe (2012) described cervical cancer as a malignant disease that occurs at the cells of cervix, the lower portion of the uterus that connects to the vagina. Cervical cancer is caused by Human Papilloma Virus – HPV (WHO, 2013). HPV is a virus that infect the skin and mucus membrane of humans and a variety of animals. HPV live only in squamous epithelial cells in the body (skin, cervix, vagina, anus, vulva, head of penis, mouth and throat). HPV is transmitted through sexual contact thus making it one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted infections (STls) in the world (Anorlu, 2008). It is associated with risk factors. Risk factors are anything that affects your chance of getting a disease, such as cancer, that encourages the occurrence or incidence of a diseases.

Risk factors identified are early age of sexual activity, multiple sexual partners, sexually transmitted infections (STs) such as Chlamydia infection, smoking, poor nutrition (lack of antioxidants like vitamin A & E in diet), long use of oral contraceptives low socio-economic status and parity, Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (sue, 2006; Anorlu, 2008;

Ademolekan, 2010). HIV and HPV act in synergy to cause cervical cancer (Eyo & Ekpo, 2014). HIV infection is associated with rapid progression of invasive cervical cancer. This was confirmed by (Urasa &Darj 2011) who stated that cervical cancer appears 10years earlier in HIV positive women and is at a more advance stage when diagnosed and more likely to cause death compared to HIV negative women; as symptoms do not manifest immediately.

Early sign of cervical cancer and pre-cancer are asymptomatic. Symptoms often do not begin until the cancer becomes invasive and grows to nearby tissues (National Cancer Institute of Health – NCIH (2012). It can only be defected with regular check-ups. The most common symptoms are abnormal vaginal bleeding, such as bleeding after vaginal intercourse, bleeding after menopause, bleeding and spotting between periods and having menstrual periods that are longer or heavier than usual (Anorlu, 2008). The author further outlined other possible signs of cervical cancer to include unusual vaginal discharge, pain during sexual intercourse, backache, pelvic pain and lower abdominal pain. Symptoms of advanced cervical cancer include loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue, leg pain, single swollen leg, heavy bleeding from the vagina, leaking of urine or faces from vagina and bone fractures (Anorlu, 2008).

Women present with symptoms of advanced cervical cancer due to lack of knowledge on the preventive measures. Prevention is the act of stopping something bad from happening. It is the action taken to forestalls the progress, of a disease. Prevention of cervical cancer is action taken to detect abnormal lesions or early cervical cancer to prevent it from progressing to invasive cancer. It is classified into three levels, namely, primary prevention, secondary prevention and tertiary prevention. Primary prevention of cervical cancer is the prevention of HPV infection (WHO, 2013), these includes education on lifestyle that minimizes the risk factors for HPV infection and cervical cancer and administration of vaccines to young girls. Secondary prevention of cervical cancer means preventing development of cervical cancer. It involves screening and treatment of precancerous lesions (WHO, 2013). The screening tests are pap smear or cytology test which is the most popular one and Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) which is recommended for developing countries.  Prevention of cervical cancer at the tertiary level is the diagnosis of cervical cancer and treatment. The treatment is based on the stage of the disease.

There are some socio-demographic factors that may influence women’s knowledge of cervical cancer. These variables are age, level of education and among others. Urasa and Darj (2011) reported in their study of knowledge of cervical cancer and screening practices of nurses at a regional hospital in Tanzania that younger   nurses (< 30 years) had more knowledge compared to those aged above 30 years. He explained that the younger nurses have recently come out of nursing school compared to older ones. The same observation was identified by Hong et al (2013) in their study of HPV and cervical cancer related knowledge and awareness and testing behaviours in a community of female sex workers in China, that knowledge was higher among younger female sex workers. Level of education is another variable that tend to influence women’s knowledge of cervical cancer. Siddharhar, Rajkumar, and Devivasgam (2014) observed that level of education had a significant impact in the knowledge of screening of cervical cancer. This was identified in their study of women attending a tertiary care hospital in puduchery, India, that women who had tertiary education had more knowledge compared to those with lower education (Primary & secondary). Antic et al (2014) also found out that there is significant difference in level of education of knowledge of prevention of cervical cancer, that college educated women often go for preventive measure of cervical cancer in comparison with those with only primary school education. (OR =1.95% Cl 117-1.72).

Several studies have shown poor knowledge of the disease in Africa, which even cut across different literacy levels (Anorlu, Orakwe & Oyeneyi, 2004; Ebu, Mupepi, Siakwa & Sampselle, 2014). Anorlu (2008) reported that among 500 attendees of a maternal and child health clinic in Lagos, Nigeria, only 4.3 percent were found to be aware of cervical cancer. The author further reported that 81.7 per cent of 139 patients with advance cervical cancer in Lagos, Nigeria had never heard of cervical cancer before. A study conducted by Onwere, Okoro and Chigbu (2009) on knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening using pap smear among 100 women attending antenatal clinic at Abia State University Teaching Hospital Aba, Abia State Nigeria showed only 30 per cent had heard of cervical cancer, 4 percent of the respondents had learned about pap smear and non knew what pap smear screened for. None of the respondent had done the test.

Knowledge is information or experiences one acquires to enable him resolve his health problems and health needs within his locality. Nnachi, (2007) defined knowledge as the accumulation of information for the solution of day to day human and environmental problem. Education on cervical cancer is important as knowledge gained will enable women of childbearing age to adopt preventive measures, since it affects women at a time they are socially or economically relevant to their families.

Women of childbearing age are women in their reproductive age. According to Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, NDHS, 2008, Women of Childbearing Age (WCA) are females in the age of 15-49 years. Sichanh, Quet, Chanthavilay, Diendere, Latthapnasavang, Lengnet et al. (2014) observed that WCA are at risk of contracting cervical cancer and HIV because of biological, social and cultural factors. Biologically, WCA have unprotected sex and cervical cancer strike women in their reproductive age. Socially, poverty which is a risk factor for cervical cancer (Akwara, Madise & Hinde, 2003) is rampant in Nigeria. They stated that women with low socio-economic status are more likely to have unprotected sex and multiple sexual partners, hence exposing them to Human Papillomia Virus (HPV). Then culturally, polygamy is accepted in Nigeria, polygamous marriages expose WCA to HPV (Anorlu, 2008). However, some cultural issues tend to influence women’s attitude towards cervical cancer. Some women have been influenced by their culture to belief that cervical cancer is caused by evil spirits, witchcrafts, or enemies.

Belief is a feeling that something is good, right or valuable. Belief is an assumed truth. Inozu (2011) defined belief as psychological prepositions about the world that are felt to be true. Formation of beliefs takes time and individuals attach great importance to their beliefs and act in accordance with it. WCA should be educated on cervical cancer since education improves knowledge and acceptability to scientific information against misconception of cervical cancer.

Research Question

Two questions and one hypothesis guided the study and they are;

  1. What is the level of knowledge of cervical cancer by WCA in Abia State?
  2. What is the belief of WCA about cervical cancer?

Hypothesis

There is no significant difference in the level of knowledge of cervical cancer by WCA according to age and level of education.

Methods

The descriptive survey research design was used for this study. Descriptive research design gathers data at a particular point in time with the intention of describing the existing condition.  It describes conditions or situations of what is being investigated as they exist in their natural setting (Ali, 2006). The population for the study comprised 766,723 WCA in Abia State. A sample size of six hundred and thirty (630) WCA, determined using Cohen, Manion and Morison (2011). The multi-stage sampling procedure was employed to draw the sample for the study. The procedure involves four stages. In the first the stage, simple random sampling technique of nine (9) out of seventeen (17) Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Abia State through balloting without replacement. The second state involved systematic random sampling to select one in every ten autonomous communities each from three hundred and eighty-three (383) autonomous communities in the nine selected LGAs. This resulted to a total of thirty-five (35) autonomous communities, resulting in 208 villages. In another stage, purposive sampling technique was employed to draw two villages each   from the thirty-five autonomous communities. The procedure provided a total of seventy (70) villages. The fourth stage involved picking of respondents through convenience sampling, that is, choosing the nearest study subjects to serve as respondents and continuing that process until the required sample has been obtained.

Two instruments were used for data collection: namely Cervical Cancer Knowledge and Beliefs Questionnaire (CCKBQ) and Focus Group Discussion Guide. (FGDG) CCKB was designed by the researcher to generate the quantitative data. The questionnaires were divided into three sections. Section A consisted of two items demanding the bio-data (age and level of education) of the respondents. Section B comprised of 42 items on knowledge of cervical cancer (concept, causative agent, mode of transmission, signs and symptoms, risk factors, preventive measures and screening). Section C contained 6 items on belief of WCA regarding cervical cancer. The FGDG consisted of open ended questions and was used to elicit the in depth qualitative information on cervical cancer knowledge and beliefs of WCA. Three experts in the department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Nigeria Nsukka validated the instruments. Split-half methods was used to established the internal consistency of CCKBQ. Data generated were used to compute the Cronbach alpha coefficient using statistical package for social science (SPSS). A reliability coefficient index of .74 was obtained. This was considered high enough for the study. The distribution and collection of the questionnaires was facilitated by the assistance of three research assistants who were brief on the administration of the instrument and ensuring that the respondents responds to the items independently.  The completed copies of the instrument were collected on the spot to ensure high return rate. Six hundred and five (605) were duly completed and returned. Mean, frequency and percentage were used for data analysis. Okafor’s criteria (Okafor, 1997) were used to determine the level of knowledge of cervical cancer. By these criteria, below 40 percent score of the respondent was considered low knowledge, 40-59 percent was considered moderate knowledge, a score of 60-80 percent was considered high knowledge while 80 percent was considered very high knowledge. ANOVA statistic was used   in testing the null hypotheses at .05 level of significance. This is because the data generated is a continuous data showing students’ (WCA) scores graded over 100 percent.

Results

The data collected from the respondents were analyzed and the results were presented below as they relate to the research questions and hypothesis.

Table 1

Level of Knowledge of Cervical Cancer (n=605)

Items on Knowledge of Cervical Cancer  
Meaning of cervical cancer 33.39
Causes of cervical cancer 36.69
Mode of transmission 41.65
Signs and symptoms 44.01
Risk factors 40.36
Preventive measures 40.63
Screening 37.60
Over all (%) 39.18

Key:  Okafor (1997) 0 -20% = very low knowledge, 21-39% = low knowledge, 40-59% = moderate knowledge, 60-79% = high knowledge, 80% and above = very high knowledge.

 

 

 

Table 1 shows an overall mean score of 39.18 percent. This implies that the level of knowledge of cervical cancer of WCA was low. The Table further reveals that WCA had low level of knowledge of meaning of cervical cancer ( causative agent of cervical cancer ( and screening (. Furthermore, the Table shows that WCA had moderate level of knowledge of mode of transmission (, signs and symptoms ( risk factors (= 40.36%) and preventive measures ( of cervical cancer respectively.

 

Table2

Belief of Cervical Cancer (n = 605)

  Believed Don’t Believed
Statements f            %       f             %
Cervical cancer is a disease of old women who are 65 years and above  

83

 

13.7

 

522          86.3

Cervical cancer is never curable 138 22.8    467          77.2
Cervical cancer is caused by enemies 23 3.8    582         96.2
Cervical cancer is caused by evil spirit 23 3.8    582         96.2
Cervical cancer is caused by witchcraft 26 4.1    579         95.7
Cervical cancer screening should be for married women only. 77 12.7    528        87.3
Overall Percentage   10.2       89.8

Table 2 shows an overall mean score of 10.2% of WCA who indicated their beliefs in the items contained in the Table.  The table further shows very low proportions of WCA who believed that cervical cancer is caused by witchcraft (4.1%), cervical cancer is caused by evil spirit (3.8%), cervical cancer is caused by enemies (3.8%).

 

Table 3

Summary of ANOVA Testing of Null Hypothesis of No Significance Difference in the Level of Knowledge of Cervical Cancer by WCA According to Age (n=605)

Item Sum of squares           df Mean squares F-cal P-value
Causative agent Between Groups

Within Groups

Total 1

423394.463

1381993.967

1405388.430

2

602

604

11697.231

2295.671

5.095 .006**

*Significant

 

Table 3 shows the F-calculated value and P-value for causative agent of cervical cancer (F-cal = 5.095, P = 0.006 <0.05) with P value less than 0.05 at 2 602 degree of freedom. The null hypothesis of no significant difference was rejected. This implies that the knowledge of causative agent, by WCA differed according to age.

 

Table 4

Summary of ANOVA Testing of Null Hypothesis of No Significant Difference in the Level of Knowledge of Cervical Cancer by WCA According to level of education

(n = 605).

 

Item Sum of squares  df Mean squares F-cal P-value
Meaning of cervical cancer Between Groups

Within Groups

Total

27711.524

1377842.195

1405553.719

3

601

604

9237.175

2292.583

4.029 .007**

*Significant

Table 4 shows the F-calculated values and the corresponding P-values for meaning of cervical cancer (F-cal = 4.029, P = .007, <0.05), with P value less than 0.05 at 3 and 601 degree of freedom. Since the P-value is less than 0.05, the null hypothesis of no significant difference was therefore rejected. This implies that the knowledge of this component by WCA differed according to their level of education.

Discussion

Results in table 1 shows that WCA demonstrated low knowledge (39.1%) of cervical cancer. The finding is expected and not surprising because there is no awareness on the existence of the disease.  The government is yet to recognize cervical cancer as an important serious public health problem and accord it a priority status given to diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy and HIV and AIDs. This result of low knowledge of cervical cancer by WCA agrees with the finding of Anorlu (2008) who found out that only 4.3 per cent of 500 attendees of maternal and child health clinic were aware of cervical cancer. The author reported that 81.7 per cent of 139 patients with advance cervical cancer in Lagos had never heard of cervical cancer before. The result also agrees with the finding of Wright et al (2010) in which market women demonstrated low knowledge of cervical cancer. Result in Table 1 is consistent with data from Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) which revealed that only few participants had heard of cervical cancer. Majority were ignorant of the existence of the disease. They participants stated that they were aware of breast cancer only. They did not know the meaning of cervical cancer nor the causative agent. The participants mentioned untreated infection and poor personal hygiene as causes of cervical cancer. The participants had no knowledge on the mode of transmission. They responded that cervical cancer could be contacted from toilet, during delivery or abortion if not attended by skilled attendant or when aseptic technique was not observed during delivery, dirtiness around the vagina. Only very few knew that cervical cancer can be contacted through sexual intercourse. The participants knowledge on the sign and symptoms was considered poor as majority of them could not name any symptom of cervical cancer and among the women who mentioned the symptoms, many had given wrong answers such as itching, frequent urination, rashes around the vagina. Although few mentioned vaginal discharge and vaginal bleeding but they were not able to differentiate the type of vaginal discharge, whether normal or abnormal (offensive, foul smell) vaginal discharge or the type of vaginal bleeding because vaginal discharge can be normal and bleeding can result from menstruation.  The participants knowledge on the prevention of cervical cancer was very low. Majority did not know any of the preventive measures. Few of them mentioned use of condoms, maintaining one sexual partner and good personal hygiene. Only two participants said that one can prevent it by going for screening test and stated that information on screening test was giving to them at Abakaliki in Ebonyi State and Ikeja in Lagos State respectively, through health care professionals. None of the participants had heard of vaccination as a preventive measure. The researcher explained to the participants the age groups (9-13) qualified to receive the vaccine. Majority rejected it and mentioned promiscuity and adverse reaction to the vaccine as a reason for not accepting the vaccine. All of them have no knowledge on risk factors of cervical cancer.

The result in Table 2 revealed that majority (81.6%) of WCA did not believe that cervical cancer is a disease of aged women, is never curable, is caused by evil spirits, witchcrafts, enemies and screening is for married women only. The result was expected and not surprising. Many WCA are now educated and education improves knowledge and acceptability to scientific information against misconceptions of cervical cancer. The respondents had the belief that cervical cancer could affect any woman, is curable and screening is for every woman whether there is presence of symptoms or not. The result agrees with the finding of Oche et al (2013) where the respondents were of the opinion that cervical cancer screening is for all women of reproductive age. The result also agrees with the finding of Naseema and Smith (2014) in which the respondents (44.7%) believed that cervical cancer is preventable and curable.  Data from FGDs shows that majority (60) of WCA had a common opinion that witchcraft, evil spirit or enemies are not the cause of cervical cancer. Few participants (9) believed that they are the cause of cervical cancer and only two believed that an enemy can victimized the opponent through any means, therefore it can be caused by an enemy.

Result revealed that there was significant difference in the level of knowledge of cervical cancer based on age. (Table 3). The result was expected, intellectual functions go with age and it determines the state of individual mental alertness. Performance at very low age is significantly from performance at a matured age. The more mature the human organism, the more the intellectual efficiency (Nachi, 2007). This result agrees with the findings of Gan and Daluhi (2013) who reported that women aged 40-49 years were found more knowledgeable as compared to those in the age group of 20-29 years. However, it should be noted that this conclusion is not universally accepted considering observation of Hong et al (2013) that knowledge was higher among younger female sex workers.

The result in Table 4 revealed that there was significant difference in the level of knowledge of cervical cancer based on level of education. This was expecting but not suprising because education improves knowledge. This finding agrees with Siddhathar, Rajkumar and Devivasgama (2014) who observed in the study that women who has tertiary education has more knowledge compared to those with lower education (primary& secondary).

These findings also agree with Antic, et al (2014) who reported a significant difference in knowledge of prevention of cervical cancer, that college educated women often go for preventive measures of cervical cancer in the comparison with those with only primary and secondary education (OR = 1.95% Cl 117-1.72).  The result disagrees with the finding of Ekpo and Eyo (2014) which showed no significant impact on knowledge of cervical cancer.

Conclusion

Based on the result of the study, it was concluded that women of child bearing age in Abia State have low knowledge of cervical cancer. Majority of WCA believe that cervical cancer can occur in any women of childbearing age, that it has a scientific cause and screening is not only for married women.

Recommendations

  1. WCA should be educated on cervical cancer to create awareness.
  2. Cervical cancer should be given a priority status in terms of finding and training of healthcare workers like in HIV and AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis.

 

References

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Anorlu, R.I. (2008). Cervical cancer: the sub-sahahara African perspective. Reproductive Health Matters, 16 (32): 41-49.

Anorlu, R.I Orakwe, C.O, & Onyeneyin, L. (2004). Late presentation of cervical cancer in Lagos. European Journal of Gynecological oncology. 25 (6): 729-32.

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Ekpo, M. & Eyo, E.U. (2014). Impact of cervical cancer preventive Education on the practice of cervical cancer routine checkups. Journal of Research and method in Education 4(1) 1-5.

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Inozu, J. (2011). Beliefs about language learning among students training to teach English as a foreign language. Social behaviours and Personality: An International Journal, 39, (5): 645-653

Marliyya, Z. (2010) Cervical Cancer: Every sexually active woman is at risk. http:/www.vangardngr.com/ 2010/9/cervical-cancer-every-sexually. Retrieved on August 10, 2013.

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Naseema, B.A and Smith, K.K. (2014). Awareness of cervical cancer and pap smear and its utilization among health care workers in medical college, Kozhikode. Journal of evidence base medicine and healthcare, 1(2): 12-17.

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Attaining Sustainable Development Using New Assessment Paradigm

 

Angela N. Ogbonnia

Federal College of Education Eha-Amufu, Enugu State

 

Abstract

The global ambition today is the attainment of sustainable development. Many nations around the world have embraced the need for education to achieve sustainable development.Development requires citizens of different countries world over to be adequately empowered to enable meaningful contribution of their quota. Education has been identified as an instrument for planned and systematic intervention into socio-economic development but that is not without some conditions precedent. Some conditions involve making the education system effective to inculcate skills, citizenship values and entrepreneurship. The teachers’ competence in lesson delivery techniques and knowledge in comprehensive assessment to improve the citizens becomes imperative. This paper described what sustainable development entails.The targets and indictors of sustainable development are multidisciplinary, diverse array of teaching methods and assessment procedures would be involved to assess learning for improved performance of both students and teachers. Hence, the paper also highlighted the innovative assessment strategies which support learning for life in the diverse disciplines. Some recommendations were presented to help to revolutionize assessment practices for sustainable development.

 

Introduction

 

Nigeria like most countries of the world needs problem solvers and inventors who will blaze new trails and make discoveries in the course of sustainable development. Sustainable development tends to investigate and emphasize the development of the present without compromising the future generation.Throughout the process of transiting from old fashioned era to a more dynamic, resourceful and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) based model where skill, problem solving and creativity take precedence, the situation calls for the education system to be adjusted to the dynamics. The processes of teaching and learning in the various educational levels need to implement practices that support development of skills and competences that will protect and promote collective human capital are to be transmitted. Reid and Petocz (2006) stated that sustainability requires creativity, flexibility, ethical practice and critical thinking. Therefore, approaches required to enable citizens achieve these characteristics need to be put in place in the teaching and learning processes.

The education systemwould serve to inculcate the aforementioned skills for sustainable development and make provision for appropriate assessment practices. Education for sustainability is primarily an approach and attitude, and demonstration of values and principles expected in students.Sustainable development is based on a balance between principles of environmental protection, social justice, economic well-being and diversity (http://www.iiste.org/journals/). It encompasses a broad range of paradigms, ideas and practices and as such instructional objectivesneed to be diversified to engender development.

Students need to be encouraged to view the world through another lens by re-orienting education towards sustainable development. In other words, sustainable development must be embedded as a core value amongst teachers and students. It entails additional development of realistic collaborative assessment and practical support for sustainable learning and teaching. There is need to rethink the practices of pedagogy and assessment to authentically benefit students and their diverse backgrounds in the curriculum and its implementation towards sustainable development.

Various instruments are available for assessment of different attributes as concerns their level of acquisition by the learner.  Instruments for assessment of teaching and learning need to be made valid and reliable despite diversity of the curriculum, so as to take care of the diversity of disciplines involved in sustainable learning. Assessment is an indispensable tool in learning. Assessment is one of the tools teachers can use to inform their teaching and the learning of their students. Assessment allows individuals, communities and countries to track the quality of schools and the educational system. In Nigeria, it appears assessment measures are only concerned with precision of candidates’ scores rather than the intellectual value (Okpala and Anyanwu, 2010). More so assessment has failed to tell us whether candidates have acquired the capacities to use the knowledge and skills acquired in a pluralistic and diverse society like Nigeria. The situation if not checked could hamper the achievement of the national goals as well as those of sustainable development.

Multiple goals help to develop implementation and monitoring strategies for achievement of sustainable development. Education is known as “an instrument par excellence’’. Pedagogy and assessment in education need to be tailored towards giving room for greater scope such that could take care of the multiple goals. Hence, the use of assessment measures that contribute in practical ways to achieve sustainable development becomes imperative.  They need to be equipped to undertaketo do this in a wide range of setting and in a variety of circumstance.

 

Sustainable Development and what it entails:

Sustainable development is a major focus of countries worldwide. Countries get committed to making citizens become learners throughout life. The commitment will be required of individuals, the state, employers and providers of education and in training. Education is desirable and is fundamental to the provision of improved quality of life. To provide education, we need to consider the nature of the society and the skill and competence need of the citizens. The skill and competence needs will guide our teaching, learning and assessment for sustainable development.

Sustainable development was defined by the World Commission on Environment and Development in Boud (2000), as development that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Its goal is an unending quest to improve quality of people’s lives and surroundings and to prosper without destroying the life supporting systems that current and future generations of humans depend on. Basically sustainability is about what we expect as products of educating our students and education providers have a responsibility to encourage actions and attitudes that will protect the planet and give current the future generations the chance to meet their needs and lead sustained lives.

There is need for imperatives to develop in students, capabilities that will sustain a sense of stewardship in a changing world, develop personal strategies for dealing with change, as well as setting agenda for lifelong learning. To be active agent in learning and to adopt a “learning approach to life, members of the society need to focus as much on judgment they make about learning of tasks themselves. These judgments constitute a full range of evolving assessment strategies in the fast changing world.

 

Rethinking assessment strategies:

Assessment procedures traditionally focused on formal testing. Cachia, Ferrari, Ala-Mutka and Punie, (2010) stated that assessment procedures in formal education and training have traditionally focused on examining knowledge and facts through formal testing. The traditional testing do not encourage grasping of skills, lately, however, there had been growing awareness that curricula – and with their assessment strategies – need to adequately reflect more on the skills needed for life. Society gets constantly re-shaped giving rise to new skill and competence needs. The initiative of effort to engender development connotes a declaration of fundamental principles for building a just, sustainable and peaceful global society in the 21st century.Skills such as problem-solving reflection, creativity, critical thinking, learning to learn, risk-taking, collaboration and entrepreneurship are becoming increasingly important (Redeckeret al. in Redecker and Qystein, 2013).Therefore, assessment should involve looking at students’ ability to engage in and complete complex thinking and problem solving tasks rather than discrete knowledge.

For students to become effective lifelong learners, developing the important requisite skills as they evolve, they need to be prepared to undertake assessment of the tasks they are faced with throughout their lives. This would enable the teacher identify whatever standards are appropriate for the task in hand and seek various form of feedback to enable them undertake subsequent learning more effectively (Boud, 2000). Assessment provides statement of what counts and directs learner’s attention appropriately to those matters. Formative assessment guides the learner in how to learn, what is to be learned and indicates how well progress is made to get to the expected end. Summative assessment does not locate assessment in the hands of learners and as such needs to be substituted. It takes responsibility for judgment about learning from the possible learner and places it in the assessor. It also gives misleading message that assessment is not an act of the learner, but an act performed on the learner. Though, it is neither possible nor desirable to remove summative assessment acknowledging its legitimate role in certification, there is need for a significant shift of balance to equip learners to sustain themselves as lifelong learners and assessors.

Traditional assessment practices concentrated efforts on cognitive knowledge and perhaps few of psycho-motor skills to the utter neglect of values and other affective details that lead to the education of the total person. Amuche and Iyekekpolor (2015) avers that the effect of such outputs of education has stemmed the tide of the persistent problems in the Nigerian society such as inequality, injustice, poverty, unemployment, hunger and diseases, violence, bloodshed and terrorism, pollution and degradation of environment. Innovative assessment according to Shute and Beker (2010) calls for practitioners to rethink the way assessment is conducted and competencies defined, particularly placing the assessment process in the context of lifelong learning across the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. This rethink will encompass different techniques and methods with new thrust to improve the quality of student learning. The shift to the formative assessment of learners’ range of skills during the learning process simulate real life situations and combine all three domains while developing critical thinking skills and building confidence. The new trend will evolve alternative assessment tools not only to help alleviate test anxiety and performance anxiety (instrumental to reliance on examination malpractice), but also produce citizens that are self-reliant, productive and worthy, fit to steer the wheel of sustainable development. Assessment must be through ensuring that the method:

  • Supports a balance of assessments, including high-quality standardized testing along with effective formative and summative classroom assessments
  •  Emphasizes useful feedback on student performance that is embedded into everyday learning
  • Requires a balance of technology-enhanced, formative and summative assessments that measure student mastery of 21st century skills
  • Enables development of portfolios of student work that demonstrate mastery of 21st century skills to educators and prospective employers
  • Enables a balanced portfolio of measures to assess the educational system’s
    effectiveness in reaching high levels of student competency in 21st century skills (American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, 2010).

 

 

 

Sustainability through New Assessment Paradigm:

Assessment practices require students identify problems, investigate solutions, perform analyses work with stakeholders and enable them develop sustainability plan. More so, the practices afford them the opportunity to develop critical thinking, problem solving and communication skills in preparation for their different professional practices.

Both summative and formative assessment influence learning. Summative assessment is terminal and is used for certification. It gives no guide to improve learning. Summative assessment does not provide the agenda to improve learning (Bond, 2000). It just directs students’ attention to “what counts”, tells us what to learn without communicating directly or does unambiguously. Formative assessment provides the fine tuning mechanism for what and how we learn. It also guides us in how to learn what we wish to learn and goes further to show how well we are doing in progress to reach the target. We need a significant shift of balance in order to equip students to sustain themselves as lifelong assessors. This provides an important starting point for examination of what is needed for sustainable assessment.

Sustainable assessment need to meet both specific and immediate goals as well as establish a basis for students to undertake their own assessment activities in lifelong learning. Sustainable assessment as a term has resonance with sustainable development. Sustainability encompasses the knowledge, skills and predispositions required to support lifelong learning activities, therefore, focus on methods and techniques needs to be replaced by a new conception of assessment required for lifelong learning. Where assessment tasks act to undermine lifelong learning they cannot make positive contribution to sustainability.

New emphasis of assessment should be directed towards provision of evidence for who the learners are in the cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains of development, what they could do, rather than credits in certificates whose validity might be difficult for the owners to defend. The emphasis shifts from assessment associated with the end product of learning process to formative evaluation of learners’ range of skills during the learning process.

Assessment must transcend the testing paradigm and develop new concepts of embedded, authentic and holistic assessment. Moreover, there is a pressing past to make the conceptual shift between traditional and 21st century testing and develop assessment pedagogies, frameworks, formats and approaches that reflect the core competences needed for life supported by coherent policies for embedding and implementing assessment in daily educational practice.

To improve teaching and monitor learning properly and make formative assessment effective the teacher should always keep in mind how to use feedback and make changes in teaching. There is need for the teacher to know the skills to be improved in the learning process and how to change presentation format based on attainment. Students need to voice through class control. The assessment measure as much as possible needs to model the learning to enable students learn from it as the process goes on. The assessment should be embedded.

Considering efforts in education as a change agent to encourage changes that will create sustainability in terms of environmental integrity, economics variability and a just society for present and future, assessment strategies may be more authentic using some measures elucidated in this paper. The approaches are generally referred to as student centered because they stimulate students learning and facilitate their development of proactive attitudes. The goal to develop new practices of assessment geared to foster lifelong learning skills through student teachers would develop their own capacity to self- assess, reflect on and take an active role in managing their own learning (Nicol et al. all in Amuche and Iyekekpolor, 2015).

Teachers’ assessment measures are based on simplistic stimulus response view of learning instead of preparing for mastery of roles that constitute the professional encounter of what has been previously learned. Such assessment measures involving new approaches that are innovative include group, peer and self-assessments. Multiple measures of performance will yield the best and most dependable information about competency and so more time needs to be dedicated to it.

The need arises for the constituent units of the society or the society as a whole to find models, metrics and tools for articulating the extent to which activities undertaken are unsustainable. Assessing trend helps identify and convey information on countries’ performance in fields like environment, economy, society and technological development. The information conveyed are initiatives that exist as indictors and framework for sustainable development.

Various sustainability indices exist in the sustainability domain. These help unveil values that constitute what we care about for measurement. The values constitute indictors that condense the complexity of our dynamic environment to manageable information on which sustainability assessment will be based. Development of indicators is considered to be a unique approach for assessing sustainable development. Warhurst (2002) explains that measuring sustainability could be by improvement in the various areas measured through sustainable indicators individually and assessing the overall improvement achieved towards sustainable development by aggregating these individual areas with regards to their respective dimension. Explaining further, Laucker and Nijkampin Amuche and Iyekekpolor (2015) emphasized the target value of indicators and states that “a given indicator doesn’t say anything about sustainability  unless a reference value such as threshold is given to it”.Spohn (2004), highlights that sustainable development indices (SDIs) can be used to:

  • Assess and evaluate performance
  • Provide trends on improvement as well as warming information on declining trend for the various dimensions of sustainability i.e. economic environment and social aspects.
  • Provide information to decision makers to formulate strategies and communicate the achievements to the stakeholders.

 

Development of a framework for selecting SDIs requires different approaches which the same author identified thus:

The top-down approach which enables experts and researchers to define the overall structure for achieving the sustainability and subsequently it is broking down into set of indicators. On the contrary, the “bottom up” approach requires systematic participation of various stakeholders to understand the framework as well as key sustainable development indicators.

Many models have been developed for measuring to ascertain how well polices and commitments are demonstrated regarding sustainable development. The scope of this paper is not intended to include the explanation of the models. However, it is noteworthy that the models help identification of the key sustainability performance indicators into the key sustainability   performance index (Singh et al., 2011) evaluated for a time frame. Formulation of index used three central steps namely normalization, weighting and aggregation.

Sustainability should note inter-linkages and dynamics developed in a system. Indices should be well constructed such that sensitivity and uncertainty analysis can always help in testing the efficacy and robustness.

 

Conclusion

Sustainability has been shown to be an essential aspect of education. Various levels of education embark on practical actions to integrate sustainability into their different programmes. There is yet need to investigate with the students to make connections between their academic study and their view of the world. For measureable is about sort of building yourself and your environment to make sure that there is a tomorrow and a tomorrow after that (Emma in Macquarie University (n.d)). Attributes critical effective thinking and value based learning contribute to build self and environment so as to envision a sustainable future.

Adequate assessment measures will facilitate the acquisition of the attributes. If the assessment measures that facilitates the learning of the attributes are put in place sustainable development will be accelerated. It is the hope of the writer that when learning is assessed adequately, requisite, knowledge, skills and values will be acquired. The acquisition will engender sustainable development.

 

Recommendation

  1. The assessment practices of teacher at all levels should involve multiple measures of performance at all the three domains of behaviour. This will provide dependable information to help improve teaching and learning
  2. Monitoring and supervision of teacher educators may become imperative to ensure that new graduate output of teacher education would produce personnel not only competent in lesson delivery techniques but also in approaches to assessment. This will improve the quality of education
  3. National or state tests should be encouraged on regular basis to hold schools accountable for the performance standards. The regular testing motivates the teachers and students to imbibe the culture of pursuing ever increasing higher standards.
  4. Education reform Act should be enacted to punish failure by operators to comply with regulations on prescribed assessment practices.
  5. Choice of assessment formats that encourage and promote self-regulated learning should be encouraged. This will enable students acquiring knowledge, skills and values necessary for life.
  6. Experts involves in accreditation of teacher education programme should demand accountability from the operators of the institutions by considering their assessment practices as evidence of quality assurance.

 

References

 

American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (2010). Partnership for 21st century skills. 21st century knowledge and skills in educator preparation. New York: Routledge.

Amuche, C.I. & Iyekekpolor, S.A.O. (2015). Imperatives of innovative assessment practices for sustainable development in Nigeria. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development,6(11), 32-38.

Boud, D. (2000). Sustainable assessment: Rethinking assessment for the learning society. Studies in Continuing Education, 22(2), 151-167.

Cachia, R., Ferrari, A., Ala-Mutka, K., &Punie, Y. (2010). Creative learning and innovative teaching. Final report on the study of creative and innovation in education in EU member states (Seville, JRC – IPTS).

KEI (2005). Knowledge economy indicators, work package 7, state of the Arts Report on simulation and indicators. Macquarie University (n.d). Sustainability. Retrieved 17th April 2017

Okpala, N. P. & Anyanwu, I. E. (2010). Enhancing the Operational Efficiency of Examination Bodies: The National Examinations Council (NECO) Perspective. Paper presented at 28th Annual conference of the Association for Educational Assessment in Africa held at Abuja.

 

Petocz P. & Reid, A. (2006). University lectures’ understanding of sustainability. Higher Education, 51(1), 105-123.

Redecker, C. & Qystein, J. (2013). Changing assessment – towards a new assessment paradigm using ICT. European Journal of Education, 48(1).

Shute, V. J. &, Beker, B. J. (2010). Innovative assessment for the 21st century- supporting educational needs ISBN: 978-14419-6529-5: Retrieved on 6th of Oct.2010

Singh, R.K., Murly, H.R., Gupta, S.K., Dikshit, A.K. (2011). An overview of sustainability assessment methodologies. Ecological Indicators, 15, 281-299.

Singh, R.K., Murly, H.R., Gupta, S.K., Dikskit, A.K. (2007). Development of composite sustainability performance index for steel industry index for steel industry. Ecological Indicators, 7, 565-588.

Spohn, O.M. (2004). Sustainable development indicators within the German water industry: A case study carried out at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.

Warhurst, A. (2002). Sustainability indicators and sustainability performance management. Report to the project: Mining minerals and sustainable development (MMSD). International institute for environmental and development (IIED), Warwick England. http://www.iied.org/mmsc//mmsd.pdfs/sustainability-indicators.pdf.

World Commission on Environment and Development (1987). Our common future. Oxford University Press, Oxford. http://www.iiste.org/journals/.

 


EFFECTIVE ENFORCEMENT OF EDUCATION LAWS by Nwabueze and Iheoma

IMPLICATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE ENFORCEMENT OF EDUCATION LAWS IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Nwabueze, Akachukwu I. (Ph.D.)
Department of Educational Foundations, University of Nigeria, Nsukka
&
Iheoma, Chibuzo C.
Department of Educational Management, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State

Abstract
This study investigated the implications for effective enforcement of education laws in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria. Four research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. The research design was descriptive survey. Population of the study comprised all the 1,050 public senior secondary schools in South East, Nigeria with 1050 principals. A sample size of 250 principals was drawn from a population using the stratified random sampling technique representing 23.8%. The instrument used was questionnaire titled “Implications for Effective Enforcement of Education Laws in School Administration Questionnaire (IEEELSAQ)”. The instrument was validated and reliability test was carried out using test re-test method and the results of the tests were correlated with Pearson Product Moment Correlation, which yielded an index of 0.86. The research questions were answered using mean scores and standard deviation, while z-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 significant level. The study revealed among others that, teachers’ acts of misconduct that can be curtailed by the enforcement of the legal doctrine of vicarious liability include: involvement of staff in unauthorized collection of money from students, staff involvement in assaulting students or fellow staff, staff involvement in the harassment of students sexually, and involvement of staff in forgery/mutilation of school official documents. The legal implications of the principals’ role performance in the enforcement of students’ fundamental rights in the administration of secondary schools include: suing principal that is responsible for indisciplinary actions in school if he violates the fundamental rights of the personnel in his school, and empowering principals to report cases of professional misconduct of staff to teachers’ disciplinary committee (TDC) otherwise sued for violation of fundamental human rights. Based on the findings, researchers recommended that teachers’ acts of misconduct should be curtailed by the enforcement of the legal doctrine of vicarious liability in the school system for effective administrative performance in the schools.


Volume 15, No.3 Article 3

NEED FOR SKILL ACQUISITION IN DATABASE MANAGEMENT FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SOUTH EAST UNIVERSITIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

 

Chigbu, BaptistaC hinyere, Onah, B.I, IbebuifeUgwu and C.A Obi

Department of Educational Foundation, Department of Computer and Robotic Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria, Department of Science Education, Madonna University Okija, Anambra State, Nigeria and Department of Business Education

 

Abstract

This study focused on the Need for Skill Acquisition in Database Management for Secondary school Student in South East Colleges of Education for sustainable development in Nigeria.  Three research question and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The target population for this study was respondents comprising 251 Secondary school students. There was no sampling due to the manageable size of the population. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit the needed information from the Lecturers and Technical Instructors. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions and independent t-test statistic to test the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance using SPSS version 20. From the analyses, it was found out that Skill Acquisition in Database Management include data definition language skill, data manipulation language skills and data control language skills among others. It was also found out that, the study also made recommendations such as the establishment of skill acquisition centers in every nook and cranny of the country to make the database management programme accessible to the students, the recruitment of competent and experienced lecturers and instructors to make database management programme more viable and streamline of the skill acquisition in database management programmes effective for the benefits of the unemployed graduates in Nigeria among others.

 

Keywords: skill acquisition, database management, secondary school, and sustainable development

 

It is quite glaring that no nation can develop without proper exploitation of her natural resources for the benefit of the people. The development of infrastructures (roads, railways, power, pipe borne water, communications, and healthcare, among others) is of paramount value to enhance the economy of such a nation. In order to make the economy grow, strong and stable in this era of economic recession, there is need to increase the productivity skills of all factors of production (land, labor, capital among others). Skill is very important in the life of every citizen.

Skill according to Ogundele, Feyisetan and Shaaba (2014) is the ability to do something well, usually gained through training or experience that needed. In the same view, Speelman (2005) further stated that a skill is seen as ability to do something well, usually gained through training or experience. Skill is like key used in opening door of fortune Skill is like key used in opening door of fortune. As water is very essential to human life; so is skill needed in the life of every serious minded human being. Skills can do a lot of great work in the life of every living soul. Lack of skills is a major cause of corruption. This skill can be obtained through education, training or experience that will inculcate into individual how to carry out or discharge effective responsibilities very well with the new knowledge. This is because any work carried out by skilled people cannot be compared with those tasks performed by unskilled people. When a skill is acquired in any discipline, it is assumed that the future gains that would result from it are of greater importance in terms of productivity.

Skill acquisition according to Speelman (2005) is the ability to learn or acquire skills. The author further states that skill acquisition involves the development of a new skill, practice of a way of doing things usually gained through training or experience. Furthermore, skill acquisition is the science that underpins movement learning and execution and is more commonly termed motor leaning and control (Williams & Ford, 2009). Skill acquisition refers to a form of prolonged learning about a family of events. Through many pairings of similar stimuli with particular responses, a person can begin to develop knowledge representations of how to respond in certain situations. Skill acquisition in the context of this study is the ability to be trained on a particular task or function (database management) and become expert in it. Skill acquisition aimed at bringing all students in Nigeria to promote basic trade skills and peaceful co-existence among voluntary organizations within Nigeria and across Nigeria.

Skill acquisition includes self-employment, diverse job opportunities, employment generation, effective function and crime reduction. A skill acquired man is a self-employed man. A self-employed person can never go hungry because the skill the person acquired provides food for him on daily basis. But one who lacks skill acquisition will find it difficult to be self-employed because the person has nothing to offer. Skill acquisitions were organized for promoting the capacities of the students for sustainable development. Skill acquisition reduces the crime rate in many nations. It also helps the society not to depend on white collar jobs, helps students to develop a positive attitude towards work and labour and it reduces poverty amongst members of the society. Students of secondary school should be encouraged to develop positive attitude towards skill acquisition in various fields of education such as database management among others.

Database management system is a computer software application that interacts with the user, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data (Buelow, 2000). A general purpose database management system is designed to allow the definition, creation, querying, update and administration of database. The role of database management system both in Education and business cannot be over emphasized (Bock, 2007). The author further says that it manages data efficiently and allows users to perform multiple tasks with ease. Database management system maintains accuracy of information, improve data security among others. DBMS reduces data redundancy, enhance data integrity, improved flexibility of information, increase access and availability of data. In other to achieve these benefits of DBMS, students should undergo a training course in secondary school.

Secondary school is the process of acquiring the basic computer knowledge, ideas, skills, and other competencies so as to understand the basic terminologies, weaknesses of computers, potentialities of computers and how computers can be used to solve everyday problems (Onah& Obi 2015). The authors further stated that secondary school forms a part of the school and college curricula, as it is important for every individual today, to have the basic knowledge of computer. In the same vein, Onah, Agbo&Ukwueze (2016) buttressed that secondary school is designed to build familiarity with one of the most ubiquitous technologies of the 21st century. The level and depth of secondary school vary greatly, from that required by the occasional user to the needs of a deep-dive specialist. The subject matter is broad and encompasses a variety of disciplines. The acquisition of skills in database management is one of the disciplines in secondary school that will help students to be self employed after graduation.

Skill acquisition in database management system is regarded as very important issue in the educational context, especially for secondary school students (Batra and Antony 2004). The skill acquisition will help the students to diversify their job options such as working in the industries, banks, factories, companies, institutions among others. The authors further explain that acquisition of skills in database management system is an essential tool for reduction of unemployment and improving sustainable development in Nigeria. These database management system skills students’ needs to acquire include data definition language skills, data manipulation language skills, and data control language skills among others.

Data definition language (DDL) according to Shakir, (2009) is a standard for commands that define the different structures in a database. DDL statements create, modify and remove database objects such as tables, indexes, and users. The author further stated that it is also syntax similar to a computer programming language for defining data structures, especially database schemas. Data definition language skill is the ability gives commands that define the different structures in a database and also give statements to create, modify and remove database objects such as tables, indexes among others.

Data manipulation language (DML) according to (Weber, 2014) is a family of syntax elements similar to a computer programming language used for selecting, inserting, deleting and updating data in a database. On the other hands, Shankaranarayan, Mostapha and Richard (2003) stated that DML skill is the ability to select, insert, delete and update data in a database. This data manipulation involves inserting data into database tables, retrieving existing data, deleting data from existing tables and modifying existing data. DML seems like simple English language and enhances efficient user interaction with the system.

Further more Data Control Language (DCL) according to (Weber, 2014), is a subset of the Structured Query Language (SQL) that allows database administrators to configure security access to relational databases. However, DCL skill is the ability to grant, revoke and deny access to relational databases (Shankaranarayan et al, 2003). DCL complements the DDL, which is used to add and delete database objects and the DML, which is used to retrieve, insert and modify the contents of a database. DCL is the simplest of the SQL subsets, as it consists of only three commands: Grant, Revoke and Deny. Combined these three commands provide administrators with the flexibility to set and remove database permissions in an extremely granular fashion. Acquiring skills in this database management is one of the tools for sustainable development.

Sustainable development according Onah, Osondu, Agbo&Nwosu (2016), is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depends. Onah et al further buttress that for sustainable development to be achieved, it is crucial to harmonise three core elements: economic growth, social inclusion and environmental protection. These elements are interconnected and are all crucial for the well – being of individuals and societies.

With the present situation of the banks, education, industries and other sectors, the activities provided through the use of database management has improved their security, data access, reduce data redundancy among others. It has also increase the data flow, economy and reduces the percentage of fraudster that hack databases. Secondary school students’ needs to acquire these skills in other to impact the knowledge to others after graduation and have diversified job opportunities and also to be self employed.

 

Statement of the Problem

University students are observed to be deficient in basic skills such as database management system skills which include data definition language skills, data manipulation language skills, data control language skills among others. They tend to develop the cognitive domain to the determent of psychomotor domain and effective domain. Thus we have students who are sound in knowledge but lack capacity for utilizing practical skills to solve problem. As such, students are involved more in memorization of concept, this has made them to be found wanting in performing practical oriented jobs. This has given rise to large number of unemployment youths who come into the labour market on yearly basis looking for white Collar jobs that in most cases are not in existence. Universities on their part have tried to bridge this deficiency gap by reviewing their curricular and tilting towards practical oriented courses. In spite of this attempt not much has been achieved as high numbers of unemployment graduates have remained unabated. It is on these bases that the problem of this study is stated thus: Need for Skill Acquisition in Database Management for Secondary school Student in South East Universities for sustainable development in Nigeria

 

Purpose of study

The purpose of this study is to find out the Need for Skill Acquisition in Database Management for Secondary school Student in South East Universities for sustainable development in Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to identify the database management skill need for;

  1. Data definition language
  2. Data manipulation language
  3. Data control language

 

Research question

The following research questions guided the study:

  1. What are the needs for data definition language skills?
  2. What are the needs for Data manipulation language skills?
  3. What are the needs for data control language skills?

 

Hypotheses

Three null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.

HO1: Year of study is not a significant source of difference between the mean ratings of students on the needs for data definition language skills

HO2: Location of the institutions is not a significant source of difference between the mean ratings of students on the needs for data manipulation language skills

HO3: There is no significant difference between the male and female students on the needs for data control language skills

 

Methodology

This study adopted a descriptive survey research design. According to Osuala in Onah et al (2016), survey research helps the researcher to identify present conditions, present needs as well as information on which to base sound decisions. The authors further stated that survey research focuses on people, the vital facts of people, and their beliefs, opinions, attitudes, motivation and behavior. Descriptive survey design is therefore considered most appropriate for this study because it sought opinions of respondents on the Need for Skill Acquisition in Database Management for Secondary school Student in South East Universities for sustainable development in Nigeria.

This study was carried out in South East universities that offer secondary school in their institutions namely: University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Ebonyi State University and Enugu State University of Science and Technology. The choice of this area was based on the fact that their people are hardworking but it was observed that many university graduates are unemployed. The universities have almost the same characteristics and present the same problems.  The population for this study consists of 251 respondents which comprised of third and final year students. The third and final year students were also chosen because they are at the verge of the study.  No sample was taken as the determined number was considered manageable. A structured questionnaire on the Need for Skill Acquisition in Database Management for Secondary school Student in South East Universities for sustainable development in Nigeria was used. The questionnaire was subjected to face validation by three experts.

The reliability of the instrument was established using Cronbach Alpha Formula. The internal consistency of the items was established by a single administration of the instrument to University of Lagos, Lagos State. The reliability coefficient of the sections all together was 0.91. Copies of the questionnaire were administered on the respondents with the help of eleven trained research assistants. The research assistants collected copies of completed questionnaire from the respondents after two week. A total of 206 copies (82%) out of 251 copies of the questionnaire items were returned. The data collected from the respondents were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test statistics. The mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions. Any item with a mean rating of 2.50 and above was regarded as needed while any item with a mean rating less than 2.50 was regarded as not needed. The correlated t-test statistic was used to test the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. Any hypothesis whose significance levels was less than or equal to 0.05 level of significance was rejected while a hypothesis with significance level greater than 0.05 level was not rejected.

 

Results

  1. Research Question 1: What are the needs for data definition language skills for sustainable development in Nigeria

Table 1: Mean, standard deviation and test of hypothesis of respondents (Male and Female) responses on the needs for data definition language skills for sustainable development in Nigeria,

S/N Items XM XF XG SD P-Value Remarks
              RQ HO
1 create two or more database tables 3.09 3.30 3.14 0.73 0.10 Needed NS
2 Process data in for easy access 3.16 3.02 3.13 0.83 0.33 Needed NS
3 Define data for management report 3.45 3.34 3.43 0.57 0.26 Needed NS
4 Record information for proper management 3.64 3.45 3.60 0.74 0.14 Needed NS
5 Control data and monitor progress 3.52 3.27 3.47 0.62 0.02 Needed S
6 Collect and analyse data on sales, costs and profit 3.43 3.49 3.44 0.50 0.47 Needed NS
7 Plan the objectives and flow of data for the organization 3.09 3.30 3.14 0.73 0.10 Needed NS

Key: XM = mean of the male students, XF = mean of the female students, XG = grand mean, SD = Standard deviation, NS = Not significant, S = significant *N = 206*

 

Data presented in Table 1 showed that the mean ratings of the responses of the respondents on the 7 identified items relating to the needs for data definition language skills for sustainable development in Nigeria had mean values ranging from 3.13 to 3.60 which are all greater than the cut-off point of 2.50 on a 4-point rating scale. The data in the table indicated that the respondents needed that all the 7 items could be the needs for data definition language skills for sustainable development in Nigeria. The standard deviation values for the fourteen items ranged from 0.50 to 0.83 which showed that the respondents were not far from one another in their responses and that their responses were not far from the mean. The table also showed that the p-values of the items 1,2,3,4,6, and 7 ranged from 0.10 to 0.47 which were greater than 0.05 level of significance and 204 degrees of freedom. This showed that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the mean responses male and female students with regards to the needs for data definition language skills for sustainable development in Nigeria while the item 5 is 0.02 which was less than 0.05 level of significance. This showed that there is significance difference between the mean responses of the respondent on the 1 identified item.

Research Question 2: What are the needs for Data manipulation language skills for sustainable development in Nigeria

 

Table 2: Mean, standard deviation and test of hypothesis of respondents (Male and Female) responses on the needs for Data manipulation language skills for sustainable development in Nigeria.

S/N Items XM XF XG SD P-Value Remarks
              RQ HO
1 Insert new records of information in a database table 3.45 3.34 3.43 0.56 0.25 Needed NS
2 Modify data values in the customer’s database table 3.64 3.45 3.60 0.73 0.13 Needed NS
3 Update data values in the customer’s database table 3.52 3.27 3.47 0.62 0.01 Needed S
4 Make data type of each column to match with the value 3.42 3.48 3.44 0.49 0.46 Needed NS
5 Use delete statement in the database 3.09 3.29 3.14 0.73 0.10 Needed NS
6 Retrieve customer data from the database 3.16 3.02 3.13 0.83 0.33 Needed NS
7 Update the employees’ salary 3.45 3.34 3.43 0.56 0.25 Needed NS
8 Insert the details of a new employee in the organization’s database 3.64 3.45 3.60 0.73 0.13 Needed NS
9 Give recruitment, promotion and demotion details in the database 3.52 3.27 3.47 0.62 0.01 Needed S

Key: XM = mean of the male students, XF = mean of the female students, XG = grand mean, SD = Standard deviation, NS = Not significant, S = significant

 

Table 2 Data presented in Table 2 showed that the mean ratings of the responses of the respondents on the 9 identified items relating to the needs for Data manipulation language skills for sustainable development in Nigeria had mean values ranging from 3.13 to 3.60 which are all greater than the cut-off point of 2.50 on a 4-point rating scale. The data in the table indicated that the respondents needed that all the 9 items are the needs for Data manipulation language skills for sustainable development in Nigeria. The standard deviation values for the eighteen items ranged from 0.49 to 0.83 which showed that the respondents were not far from one another in their responses and that their responses were not far from the mean. The table also showed that the p-values of the items 1,2,4,5,6,7, and 8 ranged from 0.10 to 0.46 which were greater than 0.05 level of significance and 204 degrees of freedom. This showed that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the mean responses on the needs for Data manipulation language skills for sustainable development in Nigeria while the items 3 and 9 ranged from 0.01 to 0.02 which were less than 0.05 level of significance. This showed that there is significance difference between the mean responses of the respondent on the 2 identified items.

 

Research Question 3: What are the needs for data control language skills for sustainable development in Nigeria

 

Table 3: Mean, standard deviation and test of hypothesis of respondents (male and female students) responses on the needs for data control language skills for sustainable development in Nigeria,

S/N Items XM XF XG SD P-Value Remarks
              RQ HO
1 Grant permission to others to have access to the institution/ organization database 3.45 3.34 3.43 0.57 0.26 Needed NS
2 Revoke access to the institution/organization database 3.64 3.45 3.60 0.74 0.14 Needed NS
3 Deny access to the institution/organization database 3.52 3.27 3.47 0.62 0.02 Needed S
4 Prevent unauthorized access in database 3.43 3.49 3.44 0.50 0.47 Needed NS
5 Remain information intact/unaltered between updates in database management 3.09 3.30 3.14 0.73 0.10 Needed NS
6 Gain competitive advantage, both brand, value and reputation 3.16 3.02 3.13 0.83 0.33 Needed NS
7 Protect against mistakes and data leaks 3.45 3.34 3.43 0.57 0.26 Needed NS
8 Reduce data redundancy and data loss 3.64 3.45 3.60 0.74 0.14 Needed NS

Key: XM = mean of the male students, XF = mean of the female students, XG = grand mean, SD = Standard deviation, NS = Not significant, S = significant

Data presented in Table 3 showed that the mean ratings of the responses of the respondents on the 8 identified items relating to the needs for data control language skills for sustainable development in Nigeria had mean values ranging from 3.13 to 3.60 which are all greater than the cut-off point of 2.50 on a 4-point rating scale. The data in the table indicated that the respondents agreed that all the 8 items is the needs for data control language skills for sustainable development in Nigeria. The standard deviation values for the ten items ranged from 0.50 to 0.83 which showed that the respondents were not far from one another in their responses and that their responses were not far from the mean. The table also showed that the p-values of the items 1,2,4,5,6,7 and 8, ranged from 0.10 to 0.47 which were greater than 0.05 level of significance and 204 degrees of freedom. This showed that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the mean responses of male and female students with regards to the needs for data control language skills for sustainable development in Nigeria while the item 3 is 0.01 which were less than 0.05 level of significance. This showed that there is significance difference between the mean responses of the respondent on the 1 identified item

 

Discussions

The 3 Research Questions were answered using mean and standard deviation while the null hypotheses were tested using T-test statistics as evident in Tables 1 to 3. Indications in the statistical analysis of Table 1 shows that, creating tables, defining and processing data, collecting and analyzing data together with planning the objectives and flow of data are needs for Data Definition Language skills whichOlle (1978) described as a formal language used to define data structures and could be mainly classified under Create, Alter, or Drop commands. However controlling data and monitoring progress are not considered as needs for skills as there are significant differences in the opinions of male and female respondents. This is also in line withWeinerg and Cherny (2016) who indicated that most commercial Structured Query Language (SQL) systems implement Data Definition Language (DDL) which allows designers to create new table and implement other associated commands (like Alter and Drop).

The analysis of Table 2 indicates that inserting new records, modifying data, updating and retrieving data are needs for Data Manipulation Language skills for sustainable development in Nigeria. However, the male and female students need to improve on updating data value in customers’ database table and also giving recruitment, promotion and demotion details in database as needs for sustainable development in Nigeria. This is in line with Tiffany (2003) who opines that Data Manipulation Language (DML) should specify how data is inserted, updated, retrieved and deleted in objects defined at Data Definition Language stage.

The analysis of Table 3 indicates that granting permission, revoking accesses to institutional/ organizational databases, preventing unauthorized accesses in database, securing information and reducing data redundancy are needs for Data Control Language (DCL) skills for sustainable development in Nigeria. This is supported by Masood-Al-Farooq (2014) who views Data Control Language to be of three classes of commands namely: Grant, Deny and Revoke, into which categories, various other control commands fall. Again Goel et al (2016) sees DCL as one dealing with the management of roles, permission and privileges as basic skills, which is the main idea of this paper regarding DCL. However, there is need for DCL skill in denying access to institution/ organizational database among male and female students for sustainable development in Nigeria.It is therefore evident that Secondary school Teachers/Lecturers as well as students can employ various methods/measures to improve skill acquisition in Database Management.

 

Recommendations

  1. Secondary school Lecturers should make effort to encourage both male and female student to put in effort in improving the acquisition of skills in
    1. Updating data values in customers’ databases
    2. Giving recruitment, promotion and demotion details in databases
    3. Denying unauthorized accesses to institutional or organizational databases
  2. Male and female students as well as their Lecturers should use various methods for skill acquisition in database creation and management.

 

Conclusions

The conclusion from the findings is that there are deviated view among male and female students on the need for Database management skills in updating data values in customers’ databases, giving recruitment, promotion and demotion details in databases, and denying unauthorized accesses to institutional or organizational databases.

 

References

Batra, D. & Athony, S.R. (2004). Novice Errors in Conceptual Database Design. European Journal of Information System Volume 3 no 1

Bock, D.B. (2007). Entity-Relationship Modeling and Normalization Errors. Journal of Database Management

Buelow, R. (2000). The Folklore of Normalization. Journal of Database Management

Goel, A., Desai, A. I., Gupta, R., Ghosh, S., &Vadodaria, H. (2016).U.S. Patent No. 9,298,933. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Masood-Al-Farooq, B. A. (2014). SQL Server 2014 Development Essentials. UK: Packt Publishing Ltd.

Ogundele, A.G., Olanipekun, S.S, &Aina, J.K. (2014), Students’ Proficiency in English Language Relationship with Academic Performance in Science and Technical Education American Journal of Educational Research 1, no 9

Olle, T. William (1978). The Codasyl Approach to Data Base Management. Wiley

Onah, B.I & Obi, C.A:  (2015): Assessment Of The E-Learning Skills Needs Of Secondary school Students In The South-East Universities In Nigeria. International Journal of Education Research

Onah, B.I, Osondu, S.I, Agbo, G. C. &Nwosu, F.O. (2016). Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Skills Needed of Secondary school Lecturer for Effective Teaching of Database for sustainable Development in South East Universities, Nigeria. Journal of Association of Vocational and Technical Educators of Nigeria (JAVTEN),

Onah, B.I., Agbo, G.C &Ukweze, F.N (2016). E-learning skills required for digital empowerment of university students for effective learning in developing countries. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research ,

Shankaranarayan, G., Mostapha, Z & Richard, W. (2003), Managing data quality in dynamic decision environments: An information product approach. Journal of Database Management

Weinberg, P. N., &Cherny, E. (2016). U.S. Patent No. 9,495,475. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Tiffany, R. (2003). Data Manipulation Language. In SQL Server CE Database Development with the. NET Compact Framework (pp. 139-179). NY: Apress


Volume 15, No.3 Article 1

IMPLICATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE ENFORCEMENT OF EDUCATION LAWS IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS

 

Nwabueze, Akachukwu I. (Ph.D.)

Department of Educational Foundations, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

&

Iheoma, Chibuzo C.

Department of Educational Management, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State

 

Abstract

This study investigated the implications for effective enforcement of education laws in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria.  Four research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. The research design was descriptive survey. Population of the study comprised all the 1,050 public senior secondary schools in South East, Nigeria with 1050 principals.  A sample size of 250 principals was drawn from a population using the stratified random sampling technique representing 23.8%. The instrument used was questionnaire titled “Implications for Effective Enforcement of Education Laws in School Administration Questionnaire (IEEELSAQ)”. The instrument was validated and reliability test was carried out using test re-test method and the results of the tests were correlated with Pearson Product Moment Correlation, which yielded an index of 0.86. The research questions were answered using mean scores and standard deviation, while z-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 significant level. The study revealed among others that, teachers’ acts of misconduct that can be curtailed by the enforcement of the legal doctrine of vicarious liability include: involvement of staff in unauthorized collection of money from students, staff involvement in assaulting students or fellow staff, staff involvement in the harassment of students sexually, and involvement of staff in forgery/mutilation of school official documents. The legal implications of the principals’ role performance in the enforcement of students’ fundamental rights in the administration of secondary schools include: suing principal that is responsible for indisciplinary actions in school if he violates the fundamental rights of the personnel in his school, and empowering principals to report cases of professional misconduct of staff to teachers’ disciplinary committee (TDC) otherwise sued for violation of fundamental human rights. Based on the findings, researchers recommended that teachers’ acts of misconduct should be curtailed by the enforcement of the legal doctrine of vicarious liability in the school system for effective administrative performance in the schools.

 

Introduction

Schools are established to facilitate learning through teaching, research and administration of which the principals and teachers are duty-bound to accomplish the objectives of education for institutional competitiveness. They must put all their efforts into the process to ascertain that considerable changes occur in the students through teaching, research, administration and community service for individual growth and societal development. Asuru (2007) is of the opinion that, educational activities, programmes and procedures can be adequately ordered and controlled by relevant laws that guide the system. This is necessary for the timely elimination of unwanted acts of misconduct in the system. In that vein, infamous conducts, fraudulent registration, forgery, mutilation of official documents, fighting, stealing, intimidation, sexual harassment, examination misconduct, illegal collection of money, and disobedience can be checked and their impacts minimized, if not completely eradicated (Gladday, 2012).

The legal rights of a Nigerian child are contained in various municipal laws and international instruments, and these laws are based on certain fundamental principles relating to the promotion of child survival; prevention of harm to children and young persons, promotion and sustenance of Child dignity and the enhancement of Child development. These principles recognize the basic concept that the Child is the foundation of the society and he or she assures its continuity. Accordingly, the survival and the continuity of the human society depend upon the protection; prevention, nurture and development of the child (Gladday, 2012).

Law provides a framework for group relations and serves as a system for social control through regulation of human activities for the purpose of harmony in the society. The aspect of law that concerns schools is education law.  Igwe (2003) notes that, education laws border on a wide range of legal subjects including tort, constitutional law, contracts, property and other areas that affect the operation of schools.  Some of the laws that affect stakeholders in schools can be said to be education laws, which include Child Rights Act 2003, Examination Malpractices (Degree No. 3 of 1999) Act, CAP. E15, LFN, 2004, chapter 4, Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, CAP. C 23, LFN, 2004.

Education laws guide the administrative and academic activities of an educational institution. Peretomode (2001) sees education laws as those areas of jurisprudence which focus on educational activities in institutions of learning.  He quotes Alexander who sees education laws as ‘a generic term covering a wide range of legal subject matter including the basic fields of contracts, property, torts, constitutional law and other areas of law which directly (or indirectly) affect the educational and administrative processes of the educational system’. He concludes that education law is more than educational edicts and regulations. Education laws are important because they provide a legal framework for the activities done in the school (Agabi & Ukala, 2005).

Education laws can be seen as those laws enacted specifically for the planning, organisation, administration, facilitation and control of the education industry. They are very important in the educational institution as a social organisation with staff, students and groups as stakeholders that work together for the attainment of educational objectives. Education laws majorly focused on the legal doctrine of in loco parentis and legal doctrine of vicarious liability for proper maintenance of discipline among staff and students. Education law deals with the sources of funding that school organizations use to acquire resources, as well as the requirements teachers and other faculty and staff must meet to be certified, trained, hired, retained, and fired. It also covers any form of discrimination in the field of education, whether in the hiring process or in the process of educating students. One example of how education law impacts individuals is the ruling that disabled individuals cannot be discriminated against in the educational process, and must be given all reasonable accommodations necessary to allow them to learn the same subjects in the same facilities as students who are not disabled. Education law handles issues involving teachers’ unions and the segregation of students. These education laws are generally followed and enforced by Federal and State Ministry of Education.

Although, it is important that there is a policy to guide and regulate the operations of the system towards the achievement of set goals, it is equally more important that this policy is implemented. The implementation of this policy lies in the activities done in the schools by the active members of the school community (the principals, teachers and learners).  For these stakeholders to keep up to what the society expects from them, they need to work in a conducive atmosphere. Thus, law prevents a state of anarchy and provides the enabling environment for the stakeholders in the education industry to prove their best.  The absence of these laws would mean anarchy, a state of lawlessness because the level of indiscipline among these stakeholders would be high (Gladday, 2012). Moreover, where there are no laws in schools, teachers and students may not keep to their legal obligations.  Therefore, for effective administration of schools in Nigeria, principals must see to the enforcement of education laws so as to create the needed atmosphere for the actualization of the operational goals of the schools translated from the National Policy on Education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004).

School discipline is an essential element in school administration. This is because discipline is a mode of life in accordance with laid down rules of the society to which all members must conform and the violation of which are questionable and also disciplined. It is seen as a process of training and learning that fosters growth and development (Imaguezor, 1997). The aim of discipline is therefore, to help the individual to be well adjusted, happy and useful to his society. The doctrine of school discipline according to Nakpodia (2009), is based on the concept of “in loco parentis” which equips school authorities with full responsibility for children’s upbringing, the right of discipline and control. In effect, teachers have the right to punish students who contravene school laws. The doctrine of in loco parentis had been based on the assumption that by sending their children to school, parents agree to delegate to school officials the power or parental authority to control their children’s conduct in a manner that will be of best interest to the child (Nakpodia, 2011).

Equally, the legal principle of vicarious liability applies to hold one person liable for the actions of another when engaged in some form of joint or collective activity. The law of tort has been used for many centuries to protect personal interests such as property,reputation, body etc. It ensures justice is done by looking into the claimant’s need forcompensation, which is paid by the defendant who has committed a breach of duty. However, in certainscenarios, the law makes one person being liable for the harm caused by another, because ofsome legally relevant relationship between the two. This is known as the doctrine of vicariousliability.

The legal arm of Teachers Registration Council of Nigeria is saddled with the responsibility to discipline erring teachers. The following are listed as acts, commission or omission adjudged to be misconduct (TRCN, 2007): forgery or mutilation of official document, fighting in or within the school premises, assaulting a student or a teacher, abuse of a student or a teacher, intimidation of student(s), harassment (sexual or otherwise), habitual late comer, unauthorized absenteeism, taking undue advantage of students or teachers, illegal or unauthorized collection of money from students, facilitating, aiding, abetting or assessor to examination malpractice, irregular or unauthorized award of marks, bribery (giving or taking), disobedience of lawful order, stealing, extortion from students, money for marks racket, sex for marks racket, employing unqualified teachers, teaching with non-qualifying or unrecognized certificate, and teaching without registration with TRCN.

To promote the enforcement of education laws, the principal must involve parents and teachers in decision-making, which is a consultative style (Everard, Geoffrey & Wilson, 2004; John & Earl, 2003; Dean, 1993).  For example, the law on punctuality would be effective if teachers collectively discuss the importance of punctuality.  This is necessary because the essence of education law is to prevent conflict. Conflict would only be prevented through the involvement and commitment of members of the school community in conflict prevention.

Typical disciplinary measures include detention, time out or isolation, alternative education programmes in or outside the student’s school, denial of participation in school activities, and verbal reprimand or chastisement (Gladday, 2012). Generally, secondary school will be required to adopt policies that are reasonably designed to address whatever problem they face. The reasonableness standard requires that school principals balance the need to make the school environment safe and maintain order and control with the student’s interest in privacy, access to education, and autonomy.

 

Statement of the Problem

Students as priceless assets and most essential elements in education industry need to be directed to exhibit acceptable attitude and behaviour within and outside the school system. In an attempt to achieve an organized and peaceful school environment and maintain law and order, school management specifies rules and regulations to guide the activities of members of the educational institution.       Students’ indiscipline seems to be ubiquitous in the 21st century in Nigerian secondary schools. This may accrue from the recent increase in school enrolment and poor training happening in most schools. Students’ indiscipline has plagued schools leading to series of unrest. It is observed that students resort to unconstitutional measures in channeling their grievances; and it is not unusual that schools have been blamed for the awkward and uncivilized behaviour demonstrated by the students. Examination malpractices, sexual harassment, forgery, extortion, unauthorized absenteeism, mutilation of official document, bribery, and stealing, illegal or unauthorized collection of money from students are some acts that may be perpetrated by teachers in schools. These acts of misconduct by teachers undermine the goals of Nigerian educational system. This study therefore, investigates the implications for effective enforcement of education laws in the administration of secondary schools, with major focus on students’ acts of indiscipline, teachers’ acts of misconduct, legal implications of the principals’ role performance in the enforcement of students’ fundamental rights in the administration, and legal measures that would enhance the enforcement of education laws for the effective administration of secondary schools.

 

Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to investigate the implications for effective enforcement of education laws in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria. Specifically, the objectives of this study include to:

  1. determine how students’ acts of indiscipline could be curtailed by the legal doctrine of in loco parentis in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria;
  2. ascertain how teachers’ acts of misconduct could be curtailed by the enforcement of the legal doctrine of vicarious liability in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria;
  3. examine the legal implications of the principals’ role performance in the enforcement of students’ fundamental rights in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria; and
  4. find out the legal measures that would enhance the enforcement of education laws for the effective administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria.

 

Research Questions

The following research questions have been posed to guide and direct this study:

  1. How can students’ acts of indiscipline be curtailed by the application of the legal doctrine of in loco parentis in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria?
  2. In what ways can teachers’ acts of misconduct be curtailed by the enforcement of the legal doctrine of vicarious liability in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria?
  3. What are the legal implications of the principals’ role performance in the enforcement of students’ fundamental rights in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria?
  4. What are the legal measures of enhancing the enforcement of education laws for effective administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria?

 

Hypotheses

Based on the above research questions, the following hypotheses have been formulated to guide this study.

  1. There is no significant difference between the mean scores of urban and rural school principals on ways students’ acts of indiscipline could be curtailed by the legal doctrine of in loco parentis in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria.
  2. There is no significant difference between the mean scores of principals in rural and urban schools on the ways teachers’ acts of misconduct could be curtailed by the enforcement of the legal doctrine of vicarious liability in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria.
  3. There is no significant difference between the mean scores of principals in rural and urban schools on the legal implications of the principals’ role performance in the enforcement of students’ fundamental rights in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria.
  4. There is no significant difference between the mean scores of male and female principals on the legal measures of enhancing the enforcement of education laws for effective administration of secondary schools South East, Nigeria.

 

Methodology

The research design was descriptive survey. Population of the study comprised all the 1,050 public senior secondary schools in South East, Nigeria with 1050 principals.  This included 700 male and 350 female principals. A sample size of 250 principals was drawn from a population using the stratified random sampling technique representing 23.8%.  In doing so, 50 principals were drawn from each of the five states in South East, Nigeria involving 175 principals from Rural Areas and 75 principals from Urban Areas; 176 of them are males while 74 are females. The instrument used was questionnaire tagged “Implications for Effective Enforcement of Education Laws in School Administration Questionnaire (IEEELSAQ)”. The questionnaire had two sections: sections A & B. Section A is demographic data containing information such as Sex and school location. Section B contained questionnaire items structured based on the major variables of the study. The modified Likert’s rating scale was applied to the responses of the items. The responses were based on the following order: Strongly Agree (4), Agree (3), Disagree (2) and Strongly Disagree (1). The instrument was validated and reliability was carried out using test re-test method and the results of the tests were correlated with Pearson Product Moment Correlation, which yielded an index of 0.86. The research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation and z-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 significant level.

 

Results

Research Question 1: How can students’ acts of indiscipline be curtailed by the application of the legal doctrine of in loco parentis in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria?

 

Table 1: Mean Scores of Principals in Rural and Urban Schools on the ways students’ acts of indiscipline can be curtailed by the application of the legal doctrine of in loco parentis in the administration of schools

S/N Curtailment of Students’ Acts of      

Indiscipline

Urban (75) Rural  (175)
Mean St. D Mean St. D
1 Systematic application of corporal punishment in schools helps in curtailing students’ acts of indiscipline 3.26 0.78 3.35 0.50
2 Stating the school rule clearly helps to reduce the level of students’ involvement in indisciplinary acts 3.16 0.79 3.22 0.51
3

 

The use of suspension when students go contrary to the school rules helps in curtailing students’ acts of indiscipline 3.24 0.78 3.28 0.51
4

 

Principals’ exercising absolute control over the students helps in curtailing students’ acts of indiscipline 3.05 0.80 3.10 0.52
5 Principals and teachers showing good example in the school system assists in curtailing student’s indisciplinary acts 3.20 0.78 3.22 0.51
                 Aggregate Mean Scores and St. D 3.18 0.79 3.23 0.51

 

Data on Table 1 presented the mean scores and standard deviation on the ways students’ acts of indiscipline can be curtailed by the legal doctrine of in loco parentis in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria. The respondents agreed on all the items in the table with mean scores above the mean criterion of 2.5. The aggregate mean scores of 3.18 for principals in urban schools and 3.23 for principals in rural schools indicated that, students’ acts of indiscipline can be curtailed by the legal doctrine of in loco parentis in the administration of secondary schools through systematic application of corporal punishment in schools, stating the school rule clearly helps to reduce the level of students’ involvement in indisciplinary acts, the use of suspension when students go contrary to the school rules, principals’ exercising absolute control over the students, and principals and teachers showing good example in the school system.

 

Research Question 2: In what ways can teachers’ acts of misconduct be curtailed by the enforcement of the legal doctrine of vicarious liability in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria?

 

Table 2: Mean Scores of Principals on How Teachers’ Acts of Misconduct be Curtailed by the Enforcement of the Legal Doctrine of Vicarious Liability in the Administration of Secondary Schools

S/N Teachers’ Acts of Misconduct Urban Rural
Mean St. D Mean St. D
6 Involvement of staff in unauthorized collection of money from students can be curtailed by the legal doctrine of vicarious liability 3.21 0.78 3.23 0.51
7 Staff involvement in assaulting a student or a fellow staff can be curtailed by the legal doctrine of vicarious liability 3.09 0.80 3.12 0.52
8 Staff involvement in the harassment of students sexually can equally be curtailed by the legal doctrine of vicarious liability 3.14 0.79 3.30 0.50
9

 

Involvement of staff in forgery/mutilation of school official documents can be curtailed by the legal doctrine of vicarious liability 3.07 0.80 3.11 0.52
10 Staff involvement in extortion from students can be curtailed by the legal doctrine of vicarious liability 3.22 0.78 3.27 0.51
11 Unauthorized absenteeism among staff can be curtailed by the legal doctrine of vicarious liability 3.18 0.79 3.25 0.51
12 Staff involvement in fight/quarrel within the school premises can be encouraged by the legal doctrine of vicarious liability 0.57 1.09 0.38 0.73
13 Staff participation in examination malpractices/misconducts can be curtailed by the legal doctrine of vicarious liability 3.30 0.77 3.39 0.49
                 Aggregate Mean Scores and St. D 2.85 0.83 2.88 0.54

 

Data on Table 2 shows the mean scores and standard deviation on the ways teachers’ acts of misconduct be curtailed by the enforcement of the legal doctrine of vicarious liability in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria. Respondents agreed on items 6-11 and 13 with mean scores above the mean criterion of 2.5, and disagreed on item 12 as stated in the table. The aggregate mean scores of 2.85 for school principals in urban areas and 2.88 for school principals in rural areas showed that, teachers’ acts of misconduct that can be curtailed by the enforcement of the legal doctrine of vicarious liability include: involvement of staff in unauthorized collection of money from students, staff involvement in assaulting a student or a fellow staff, staff involvement in the harassment of students sexually, involvement of staff in forgery/mutilation of school official documents, staff involvement in extortion from students, unauthorized absenteeism among staff, staff involvement in fight/quarrel within the school premises, and staff participation in examination malpractices/misconducts.

 

Research Question 3: What are the legal implications of the principals’ role performance in the enforcement of students’ fundamental rights in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria?

 

Table 3: Mean Scores of Principals on the Legal Implications of the Principals’ Role Performance in the Enforcement of Students’ Fundamental Rights in the Administration of Secondary Schools

S/N Legal Implications of the Principals’ Role Performance in the Enforcement of Students’ Fundamental Rights include: Urban Rural
Mean St. D Mean St. D
14 Principal who is responsible for indisciplinary actions in school can be sued for violation of fundamental human rights 3.10 0.79 3.12 0.52
15 Principal can be sued in a court of law if he violates the fundamental rights of the personnel in his school 3.19 0.78 3.23 0.51
16

 

He can be equally sued in a court of law if a teacher under his command violates the fundamental rights of students 3.25 0.78 3.29 0.51
17

 

Principal  that fails to enforce discipline in teachers and students would face the legal doctrine of vicarious liability 3.42 0.76 3.46 0.49
18 Principals are empowered to report cases of professional misconduct of staff to teachers’ disciplinary committee (TDC) otherwise sued for violation of fundamental human rights 3.31 0.77 3.26 0.51
                 Aggregate Mean Scores and St. D 3.25 0.78 3.27 0.51

 

Data on Table 3 presented the mean scores and standard deviation of principals on the legal implications of the principals’ role performance in the enforcement of students’ fundamental rights in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria. The respondents agreed on all the items in the table with mean scores above the mean criterion of 2.5. The aggregate mean scores of 3.25 for principals in urban schools and 3.27 for principals in rural schools indicated that, the legal implications of the principals’ role performance in the enforcement of students’ fundamental rights in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria include: suing principal that is responsible for indisciplinary actions in school, if he violates the fundamental rights of the personnel in his school, if a teacher under his command violates the fundamental rights of students, principal’s  failure to enforce discipline in teachers and students faces the legal doctrine of vicarious liability, and principals are empowered to report cases of professional misconduct of staff to teachers’ disciplinary committee (TDC) otherwise sued for violation of fundamental human rights.

 

Research Question 4: What are the legal measures of enhancing the enforcement of education laws for effective administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria?

 

Table 4: Mean scores of male and female principals on the legal measures of enhancing the enforcement of education laws for effective administration of secondary schools

S/N Legal measures of enhancing the enforcement of education laws for effective administration of secondary schools include: Female (74) Male (176)
Mean St. D Mean St. D
19 Principals’ involvement in creating awareness on stipulations of TRCN on the acts of misconduct by teachers 3.22 0.78 3.33 0.50
20 Enforcement of  education laws through the use of a good supervisory technique by principals 3.37 0.77 3.47 0.49
21

 

Providing good welfare packages for the teachers by the government 3.45 0.76 3.50 0.48
22

 

Full commitment by teachers’ disciplinary committee can make a difference 3.12 0.79 3.17 0.52
23 Conscientious implementation of teachers’ professional ethics and codes of conduct 3.41 0.76 3.49 0.49
                 Aggregate Mean Scores and St. D 3.31 0.77 3.39 0.50

 

Data on Table 4 presented the mean scores and standard deviation of principals on the legal measures of enhancing the enforcement of education laws for effective administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria. The respondents agreed on all the items in the table with mean scores above the mean criterion of 2.5. The aggregate mean scores of 3.31 for female principals and 3.39 for male principals indicated that, the legal measures of enhancing the enforcement of education laws for the effective administration of secondary schools include: principals’ involvement in creating awareness on stipulations of TRCN on the acts of misconduct by teachers, enforcement of  education laws through the use of a good supervisory technique by principals, providing good welfare packages for the teachers by the government, full commitment by teachers’ disciplinary committee can make a difference, and conscientious implementation of teachers’ professional ethics and codes of conduct.

 

Test of Hypotheses

Hypothesis 1: There is no significant difference between the mean scores of urban and rural school principals on how students’ acts of indiscipline could be curtailed by the application of the legal doctrine of in loco parentis in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria.

 

Table 5: Summary of z-test analysis on the difference between the mean scores of urban and rural school principals on the ways students’ acts of indiscipline could be curtailed by the legal doctrine of in loco parentis in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria.

Location of Principals N Mean St. D df z-calculated Critical value Decision
Urban 75 3.18 0.79  

248

 

-0.502

 

±1.960

Ho1 Accepted
Rural 175 3.23 0.51

 

Data on table 5 showed the summary of z-test analysis on the difference between the mean scores of urban and rural school principals on the ways students’ acts of indiscipline could be curtailed by the legal doctrine of in loco parentis in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria, and the result indicated that the z-calculated value of -0.502 is less than the critical value of ±1.960. Based on this, the null hypothesis is accepted meaning that, there is no significant difference between the mean scores of urban and rural school principals on the ways students’ acts of indiscipline could be curtailed by the legal doctrine of in loco parentis in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria.

 

Hypothesis 2: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals in rural and urban schools on the ways teachers’ acts of misconduct could be curtailed by the enforcement of the legal doctrine of vicarious liability in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria.

 

Table 6: Summary of z-test analysis on the difference between the mean scores of urban and rural school principals on the ways teachers’ acts of misconduct could be curtailed by the enforcement of the legal doctrine of vicarious liability in the administration of secondary schools

Location of Principals N Mean St. D df z-calculated Critical value Decision
Urban 75 2.85 0.83  

248

 

-0.286

 

±1.960

Ho2 Accepted
Rural 175 2.88 0.54

 

Data on table 6 showed the summary of z-test analysis on the difference between the mean scores of urban and rural school principals on the ways teachers’ acts of misconduct could be curtailed by the enforcement of the legal doctrine of vicarious liability in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria, and the result indicated that the z-calculated value of -0.286 is less than the critical value of ±1.960. Based on this, the null hypothesis is accepted meaning that, there is no significant difference between the mean scores of urban and rural school principals on the ways teachers’ acts of misconduct could be curtailed by the enforcement of the legal doctrine of vicarious liability in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria.

 

Hypothesis 3: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals in rural and urban schools on the legal implications of the principals’ role performance in the enforcement of students’ fundamental rights in the administration of secondary schools.

 

Table 7: Summary of z-test analysis on the difference between the mean scores of urban and rural school principals on the legal implications of the principals’ role performance in the enforcement of students’ fundamental rights in the administration of secondary schools.

Location of Principals N Mean St. D df z-calculated Critical value Decision
Urban 75 3.25 0.78  

248

 

-0.205

 

±1.960

Ho3 Accepted
Rural 175 3.27 0.51

 

Data on table 7 showed the summary of z-test analysis on the difference between the mean scores of urban and rural school principals on the legal implications of the principals’ role performance in the enforcement of students’ fundamental rights in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria, and the result indicated that the z-calculated value of -0.205 is less than the critical value of ±1.960. Based on this, the null hypothesis is accepted meaning that, there is no significant difference between the mean scores of urban and rural school principals on the legal implications of the principals’ role performance in the enforcement of students’ fundamental rights in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria.

 

Hypothesis 4: There is no significant difference between the mean scores of male and female principals on the legal measures of enhancing the enforcement of education laws for the effective administration of secondary schools.

 

Table 8: Summary of z-test analysis on the difference between the mean scores of male and female principals on the legal measures of enhancing the enforcement of education laws for the effective administration of secondary schools

Gender of Principals N Mean St. D df z-calculated Critical value Decision
Female 74 3.31 0.77  

248

 

-0.819

 

±1.960

Ho4 Accepted
Male 176 3.39 0.50

Data on table 5 showed the summary of z-test analysis on the difference between the mean scores of male and female principals on the legal measures of enhancing the enforcement of education laws for the effective administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria, and the result indicated that the z-calculated value of -0.819 is less than the critical value of ±1.960. Based on this, the null hypothesis is accepted meaning that, there is no significant difference between the mean scores of male and female principals on the legal measures of enhancing the enforcement of education laws for the effective administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria.

 

Discussion of Findings

The findings of this study revealed that, students’ acts of indiscipline can be curtailed by the legal doctrine of in loco parentis in the administration of secondary schools through systematic application of corporal punishment in schools, stating the school rule clearly helps to reduce the level of students’ involvement in indisciplinary acts, the use of suspension when students go contrary to the school rules, principals’ exercising absolute control over the students, and principals and teachers showing good example in the school system. The test of hypothesis one showed that, there is no significant difference between the mean scores of urban and rural school principals on the ways students’ acts of indiscipline could be curtailed by the legal doctrine of in loco parentis in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria. In line with the findings, Gladday (2012) stated that students’ acts of indiscipline can be curtailed by the legal doctrine of inloco parentis in the administration of secondary schools through the use of corporal punishment, suspension of any student that is not discipline, clearly stated school rules, appropriate control over students by principals, and continuous presence of teachers in the classroom. This is also in line with the findings of Nakpodia (2009) who listed many areas a school principal or teacher as conducting disciplinary matters as the rules and regulations, school attendance, use and misuse of uniform, personal appearance of the student, use and misuse of school property, student-student relationship, student-teacher relationship, class regulations and test/examination. In an effort to prevent and resolve students’ disciplinary problems and ensure efficient functioning of schools, there has to be reasonable disciplinary policies and procedures. In addition, various disciplinary approach such as corporal punishment, suspension and expulsion, exclusion and civil rights issues must be adopted to enhance the effectiveness of school administration.

Also, the findings of this study revealed that, teachers’ acts of misconduct that can be curtailed by the enforcement of the legal doctrine of vicarious liability include: involvement of staff in unauthorized collection of money from students, staff involvement in assaulting a student or a fellow staff, staff involvement in the harassment of students sexually, involvement of staff in forgery/mutilation of school official documents, staff involvement in extortion from students, unauthorized absenteeism among staff, staff involvement in fight/quarrel within the school premises, and staff participation in examination malpractices/misconducts. The test of hypothesis two showed that, there is no significant difference between the mean scores of urban and rural school principals on the ways teachers’ acts of misconduct could be curtailed by the enforcement of the legal doctrine of vicarious liability in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria. It is important to note that any of these acts is a breach of the contract between the state schools’ board and the teacher.  The principal as mandated by law is to make a report where there is breach on the contract by teachers. In Bartonshill Coal Co. v McG uir e, Lord Chelmsford LC said: ‘every act which is done by an employee in the course of his duty is regarded as done by his employer’s orders, and consequently, it is the same as if the employer perpetuated the act (Singh, 2006). The legal principle of vicarious liability applies to hold any person liable for the actions of another when engaged in some form of joint or collective activity. Variably, teachers’ act of misconduct result to students’ acts of indiscipline.  Inko-Tariah (2006) reveals that poor pay, irregular payment of monthly salary, poor conditions of work can affect a teachers’ attitude to work, where they may be absent from school without permission of very flimsy reason or no reason at all.

The findings of this study equally revealed that, the legal implications of the principals’ role performance in the enforcement of students’ fundamental rights in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria include: suing principal that is responsible for indisciplinary actions in school, if he violates the fundamental rights of the personnel in his school, if a teacher under his command violates the fundamental rights of students, principal’s  failure to enforce discipline in teachers and students faces the legal doctrine of vicarious liability, and principals are empowered to report cases of professional misconduct of staff to teachers’ disciplinary committee (TDC) otherwise sued for violation of fundamental human rights. The test of hypothesis three also showed that, there is no significant difference between the mean scores of urban and rural school principals on the legal implications of the principals’ role performance in the enforcement of students’ fundamental rights in the administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria. The principal is the head of the school, which implies that he is the representative of Ministry of Education in the school; and he is responsible for the things that happen in the school environment.  As the head of the school, his main goal is to create a conducive environment for teaching, learning, research and administration so as to attain set goals of education.  To ensure this, he is to enforce education laws by maintaining discipline in the school. This agrees with Obemeata (1984) who stated that in role performance, school principal is to ensure that teachers are regular and punctual to school, ensure that they are dedicated to their duties and, ensure successful function of the school and performance of students.

The findings of this study finally revealed that, the legal measures of enhancing the enforcement of education laws for the effective administration of secondary schools include: principals’ involvement in creating awareness on stipulations of TRCN on the acts of misconduct by teachers, enforcement of  education laws through the use of a good supervisory technique by principals, providing good welfare packages for the teachers by the government, full commitment by teachers’ disciplinary committee can make a difference, and conscientious implementation of teachers’ professional ethics and codes of conduct. The test of hypothesis four equally showed that, there is no significant difference between the mean scores of male and female principals on the legal measures of enhancing the enforcement of education laws for the effective administration of secondary schools in South East, Nigeria. This is in line with the findings of Ikati (2005) who found that, if school rules and regulation must be made available to students, they will adhere to such rules and regulations. Hence, to satisfy substantive due process, an action must be reasonably related to the school’s interest in protecting students or maintaining order in the school. Generally, secondary schools are required to adopt policies/measures that are reasonably designed to address whatever problem they face.

 

Conclusion

The findings of this study have shown that, there are constitutional provisions on students and teachers’ rights and these rights must be protected in secondary schools to enhance smooth running and functions of the schools. Violation of these rights may lead to failure in school administration as well as troubles from students and parents. However, to promote the enforcement of education laws, principals must involve parents and teachers in decision-making for school development. This implies that principals must function effectively in school administration to enhance knowledge creativity, building and skill developments in the school system.

 

Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made:

  1. Students’ acts of indiscipline should be curtailed by the principals through the legal doctrine of in loco parentis in the administration of secondary schools. This can be achieved through the use of corporal punishment, suspension of any student that is not discipline and clearly stated school rules.
  2. Teachers’ acts of misconduct should be curtailed by the enforcement of the legal doctrine of vicarious liability in the school system for effective administrative performance in the schools.
  3. Principals should be mandated by law to enforce discipline in teachers and students who go contrary to the listed education laws.
  4. Principal should report cases of any professional misconduct of staff to teachers’ disciplinary committee (TDC) for proper treatment.
  5. Administrators should therefore promote the respect of education laws for smooth schools administration. An understanding of these laws and their proper application in schools administration would promote smooth running of schools.

 

References

Agabi, O.G. & UKala, C.C. (2005).  The school, the society and the law. In O.G. Agabi, A.K.  Orubite, J. Ezekiel-Hart, & D.E. Egbezor (Eds.). School and society.  Port Harcourt: Davidstones Publishers.

Asuru, V.A. (2007). TRCN and enforcement of professional ethics among teachers: Matters arisng. Lecture delivered at the installation of members of teachers’ investigation panel (TIP) and stakeholders’ forum. November 29.

Bartonshill Coal Co v McGuire (1858) 3 Macq 300. In L. A. Buckley (1997). Vicarious liability and employment discrimination. Industrial Law Journal, 26, 158-166.

Everard, K.B. Geoffrey, M. & Wilson, J. (2004). Effective school management. Fourth Edition. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.

Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National policy on education. Lagos: NERDC

Gladday, A. E. (2012). Enforcement of Education Laws: Implications for effective administration of Secondary Schools in Rivers State. M. Ed. Thesis Presented to the Department of Educational Management, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State.

Igwe, L. E. B. (2003). Elements of education Law. Port Harcourt: Pam Unique Publishers.

Ikati, L. (2005). Principals’ tort of negligence and the legal implication of effective administration of secondary schools in Bayelsa State.  M.A.  Thesis. Department of Educational Management.  University of Port Harcourt.

Imaguezor, M. V. (1997). Analysis of Cases of Violation of Students Rights in Secondary Schools in Edo State. M.Ed Thesis, University of Benin, Nigeria.

Inko-Tariah, B. (2006). The law and children’s education. Port Harcourt: Education Associates

John, B. & Earl, M. (2003). Key issues in secondary education: Introductory readings. New York: Continuum.

Nakpodia, E. D. (2011). Analysis of cases of violation of students’ rights in Delta State secondary schools, Nigeria. Prime Research on Education (PRE), 1(3), 050-059.

Nakpodia, E.D. (2009). Perceptions of Principals’ Responsibilities in in-loco-parentis in Nigerian Secondary Schools. Journal of Education Administration and Policy Studies, 1 (1), 1-7.

Obemeata, J. (1984). Secondary school headship in the Nigerian context. In S. Adesina & Ogunsaju (Eds.). Secondary Education in Nigeria. Ile-Ife: University of Ife Press.

Peretomode, V.F. (2001). Education Law: Principles, cases and materials in schools.  Owerri: International Universities Press.

Teachers Registration Council of Nigeria. (2007). Basic facts about the teachers disciplinary committee and teachers investigating panel. Retrieved from https:// www.trcn.gov.ng/file/TDC%20&%20TIP.pdf


Volume 15, No.2 Article 3

EFFECTS OF PROJECT-BASED LEARNING AND GUIDED INQUIRY ON TEACHING AND SUSTAINABILITY OF STUDENTS’ INTEREST IN LITERATURE

 

Uchechukwu Chima & Esther, N. Oluikpe

Department of Arts Education, Faculty of Education,

University of Nigeria Nsukka

 

Abstract

This study investigated the effects of project-based learning and guided inquiry towards teaching and sustainability of students’ interest in literature in Ebonyi North Education Zone of Ebonyi state. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted the quasi-experimental research design. The population of the study was all the Senior Secondary Two (SSII) students that were offering literature in public co-educational Secondary Schools in Ebonyi North Education Zone of Ebonyi State, with an estimated number of 3048 students. A sample of 110 students from two schools that were randomly selected from the public co-educational Secondary Schools in Ebonyi north education Zone of Ebonyi State participated in the study. The instrument for data collection was Literature-in-English Interest Inventory (LIEII). The instrument was validated by four experts, the four experts comprised two experts from Science Education Department (Measurement and Evaluation), and two experts from Arts Education Department (Education/English) from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The reliability of the instrument was ascertained through the trial-testing of 25 SS2 students in Model Secondary School Nsukka. The reason for the trial testing of the instrument was to determine the internal consistencies of the instrument. Cronbach Alpha was used to calculate the reliability index coefficient of the LIEII. The overall reliability index coefficient of LIEII (25 items) was .894. Mean scores and Standard Deviation were used to answer the research questions while the Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the study revealed that students taught with project-based learning method Performed well than the students taught with Guided inquiry. By implication, if Literature teachers adopt PBL and practice it in their various schools, students’ interest in Literature-in-English will be sustained. It was, therefore, recommended among others that government and other professional bodies should organise workshops, seminars and conferences to educate and sensitize the Literature teachers on the use of PBL in teaching Literature-in-English in other to achieve sustainability of interest among students.

 

Key Terms: project-based learning, Guided inquiry, interest, gender, and literature-in-English.

Introduction

Sustainability of interest in any sphere of life activities is very vital for the development of any institution and the nation at large. The use of innovative methods in teaching goes a long way to enhance the sustainability of students’ interest in whatever that is taught in the classroom. This means that a literature teacher can sustain the students’ interest in participating actively in reading literary works, through the use of innovative methods. Therefore, this study is focused on comparing two innovative methods (Project-Based Learning and Guided Inquiry), in order to determine which is more effective in sustaining the interest of students in reading literature works.

Literature is a work of art that stems up from the artistic prowess of writers and it helps to foster socialization and education of other individuals, through exposure to fictional situations. According to Saruq (2007) literature is a piece of writing with dual roles which are entertainments and education. These significant roles are derived from the stories it relates. Generally, literature is taken to mean letters that are written down (Okolo, 2003). Okolo (2003) further explained that literature is a work of arts created with words either orally or written, whose values lie in an impressive nature and ability to arouse admiration. Through literature, learners’ senses of involvement are developed as the affective domain which expresses the feelings and emotions of the learners is strengthened. Also Literature develops the cognitive domain of the individual as it develops the capacities for discrimination, judgment and decision. Furthermore literature also helps in language development as it is a tool for understanding language. In literature, language is easily learned in real situations or in endless series of situations where it is heard or is in use. (Svasubramaniam, 2006).

In teaching Literature in Nigerian Secondary Schools, Literature is taught as poetry, drama and prose. All of these are works of imagination or works that give the individual the capacity for invention (Fakeye, 2012). Furthermore, Fakeye, (2012) affirmed that in whatever genre (poetry, prose or drama) that a literature author chooses to pass his/her message, the center point is that of teaching a moral lesson and entertaining an audience. The study will be focusing mainly on the interest of students in non-African prose in the senior secondary school. The non-African prose is a type of prose work that is written by a foreign writer who is not an African. The characteristics of such prose works is that the settings, characters, plot, and language used in such prose are not like the ones used in the African prose works. According to Duru (2014) the study of Literature in English in Nigerian schools has many practical aspects:  It provides ample opportunities for learners to develop their creativity, sharpen their critical and analytical skills, and enhance their language proficiency; it broadens their awareness of the culture of different places where English is used, and enhances their appreciation and understanding of a culturally diverse society. And the intellectual, aesthetic and emotional qualities, which Literature in English helps learners develop and  prepare them for further study or work, particularly in areas such as publications and the media, where creativity, critical thinking and intercultural understanding are highly valued. Therefore in Nigerian secondary schools the students are all expected to read the prescribed text recommended by the exam board such as WAEC, NECO, and JAMB.

In spite of the benefits mentioned above students are noted for not having interest in the non-African prose works, this may be due to the fact that students are more conversant with the settings, names of characters, and the diction used in African prose works, than the non-African prose works which has settings that the students are not used to. Therefore students will always find it easier to answer questions adequately in African prose work than the non-African prose. To support this view, the WEAC Chief Examiner’s report (2012:42) on students’ performance in literature states that “the candidates were more at home with African texts but lacked the wherewithal to answer non-African texts adequately. In some cases the students misinterprets the questions because the prescribed texts were not read, which accounts for their poor performance, marked by little knowledge of the text, to the extent that names of main characters in non-African texts were wrongly spelt or not known at all.”  In elucidation,  Fakeye (2011) states that students are usually unable to understand the cultural background of the non-African prose works used since the cultural background is not their own.

It is appalling that the students’ interest towards reading approved non-African prose works wans by the day, thereby marring successful reading of the prose works. Hence interest in reading has a strong positive relationship with the success of students both in school and life. According to Anderson, Fielding and Wilson (1988) reading interest is one of the best predictor of a child’s growth in reading. This affects their interests towards reading the non-African prose works which bring about poor achievement in the Literature-in-English 2. Interest has great influence in reading. When one has no interest to read, no matter what the teacher or guardians do, reading will never take place to enhance learning. Hidi (2001) argues that interest is associated with automatic attention that facilitates learning. However, Schraw (2001) upholds that individual interest is a relatively long-lasting habit of re-engaging with particular objects and events. The interest similar to classroom learning helps to facilitate learning and consequently boost achievement. As interest undoubtedly has strong emotional components, this aspect plays a critical role on how reading interest influences reading achievement of prescribed non-African prose text in secondary schools.

Furthermore, the lack of interest among literature students is worsened by the method the teachers employ in teaching literature-in-English in the classroom. The method can be said to be a teacher-centered method because most teachers come into the class, write down the prescribed texts on the board and in subsequent classes, he/she just gives a summary note of the non-African prose works for the students to copy down in their notebooks. To support this view, Reeves (2004) observed that most students are not explicitly taught and so do not understand that, learning what the “text says” is not all there is to learning to read. Omojuwa (2005) noted that teacher’s competence is a key factor in the provision of effective reading instruction for students. This implies that teachers require a sound knowledge of the non-African prose that is to be read by the students and also need to have the right skills, abilities of how to package and present instruction in the best way to make students experience success in learning to read and have interest in the prescribed texts.

In addition, inasmuch as interest and the teaching method has a great influence in what students read, gender equally plays an important role in deciding the reading interest of students. Accordingly Russell (2012) sees gender as the different roles, right, and responsibilities of men, women and the relationship between them. As noted by Onah (2008), gender, although it originates in objective biological divergences, goes far beyond physiological and biological specifics of the two sexes in terms of the roles which they are expected to play. Gender differences, unlike the immutable characteristics of sex are universally conceded in historical and comparative social analysis to be variants that are transformed over time and from one culture to the next, as societies change and evolve. As stated by Adler, Killess and Adler (1992) gender difference are social constructs, inculcated on the basis of specific society’s particular perceptions of the physical differences and the assumed tastes, tendencies and capabilities of men and women.

The students’ interest in reading literature-in-English non-African prose works may differ because of gender differences. The male students may prefer reading simply and short stories that gives them a simply conclusion, while the female students may take their time to read the prose works to get more understanding and insight about the prose, thereby making them to do better than the male students in literature-in-English.

It is pertinent to note that all that is done in the classroom has various ways of aiding or hindering the students in their quest to effectively read the prescribed texts. In teaching literature-in-English (non-African prose), the teacher can adopt instructional methods that can bring about achievement and interest reading non-African prose works. These methods could be guided inquiry and project-based learning. Guided inquiry is a teaching method whereby the teacher acts a guide in the classroom while the students are allowed to make personal inquiries and find meaningful answers to questions posed by themselves or by the teachers. Inquiry-based learning (IBL) is a pedagogy which best enables students to experience the processes of knowledge creation and the key attributes are learning stimulated by inquiry (Spronken, 2007). According to   Kuhlthau, Maniotes, and Caspari (2007), guided inquiry creates an environment that motivates students to learn by providing opportunities for student to construct their own meaning and develop deep understanding. Through guided inquiry students gain ability to use tools and resources for learning in and beyond their information age, as they are learning the content of the curriculum and meeting subject area curriculum standards. When a literature-in-English teacher adopts this method in teaching, he/she involves the students in developing questions, making observations, doing research to find out what information is already recorded, outlining possible explanations, and creating predictions for future study of other prose works.

Project-based learning is a form of teaching that is centred on projects/task given to the students by the teacher, which fosters learners’ creativity. Thomas (2000) further explains that Project-based learning is a teaching approach that engages students in a sustained, collaborative task which is built around a quest or problem, and students participate in a variety of tasks that seeks to find meaningfully solution to the quest or problem. According to the BUCK Institute for Education (BIE) (2003), project-based learning is “a systematic teaching method that engages students in learning knowledge and skills through an extended inquiry process structured around complex, authentic questions and carefully designed products and tasks. For a successful implementation of project-based learning in a literature-in-English class, the teacher acts as a guide, advisor, or coordinator, following the general stages of project-based learning which include arousing the students’ interest towards reading the non-African prose works, designing the project activities, allowing the students to conduct the project activities and finally evaluating the end result of the project carried out by the students in the literature class. That is why David (2008) inferred that “Project learning can capture the students’ interest to apply their knowledge in a problem solving context.”

The study is influenced by the experiential learning theory by John Dewey. John Dewey (1938) provided the groundwork of learning theories that focus on “learning through experience” or “learning by doing”. Experiential learning is also referred to as learning through action, learning by doing, learning through experience, and learning through discovery and exploration, all which are clearly defined by these well-known maxims:

What I hear, I forget. What I hear, see and repeat, I remember.

What I hear, see and question, I understand.

What I hear, see, discuss and do, I turn into my skills.

What I teach to others, I own, perfect and master.

–              Confucius, 450BC

Tell me and I forget, teach me and I remember, involve me and I will learn.

–              Benjamin Franklin 1750

There is an intimate and necessary relation between the process of actual experience and education

–              John Dewey, 1938.

Students in experiential learning situations cooperate and learn from one another in a more semi-structured approach. Through GIM and PBL employed in class by a literature-in-English teacher to teach non-African prose, the students will acquire experiences which will develop and sustain their interest, communication skills, self-confidence and gain strengthen decision-making skills by responding to and solving real world problem and processes.

Studying non-African prose works in senior secondary schools confers many benefits on students, but evidence abound of the poor achievements of senior secondary school students in Literature-in-English paper 2 in public examinations conducted by WAEC and NECO. Students are noted to have poor knowledge of the prescribed texts and misinterpretation of the questions in literature-in-English paper 2, and one of the several factors that may have been found to account for this appalling state of affairs, is that the students’ interest in studying prescribed non-African prose is degrading. Interest, gender and also the teachers’ teaching method may have been attributed to be the most critical. Hence this informs the researchers to compare the GIM and PBL innovative method in teaching literature-in-English, this is to ascertain which method will be more effective in the sustainability of students’ interest in literature-in-English (prose).

The purpose of this study is to determine:

  • the effect of project-based learning and guided inquiry on students’ interest in non-African prose.
  • the influence of gender on the interest of students in non-African prose, when taught with PBL and GIM.

 

Research Questions

The following were the guiding questions for this study:

  • What is the effects of Project-Based Learning and Guided Inquiry on students’ interest in literature?
  • What is the influence of gender on the students’ interest in literature?

 

Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance:

Ho1: There is no significant difference in the interest of students when exposed to PBL and GIM in Literature.

Ho2: There is no significant difference between the mean interest scores of male and female students in Literature.

 

Method

This study adopted a non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental design. The researchers used two (2) groups of intact class as treatment groups respectively. The intact groups were pretested. Treatment was administered to the respective groups after which the groups are post tested. The use of this research design offers the benefit of comparison between groups because of the naturally occurring treatment groups. The use of this research design offers the benefit of comparison between groups because of the naturally occurring treatment groups.

                The study was carried out in Ebonyi North Education Zone of Ebonyi State. Ebonyi North Education Zone has seventy seven (77) public secondary schools (Statistic Unit: SEB Abakaliki Zone, 2014), but only 25 schools offer literature-in-English. The rationale for choosing the area is because of the poor performance of the students in literature-in-English in public examination such as SSCE, this may be due to the non-challant attention given to literature-in-English as a subject in the schools, and the students are noted for not doing well in their external examination.

                The population of the study included all the SS 2 students who were in session of 2015/2016 offering literature-in-English in public co-educational secondary schools in Ebonyi North Education Zone. They were three thousand and forty eight students in number according to the Statistics Unit: SEB Abakaliki Zone, 2015.

                A total number of one hundred and ten (110) students constituted the sample of the study. This sample size was drawn from a population of three thousand and forty eight (3048) students. There are 25 schools offering literature-in-English in Ebonyi North Education Zone, therefore Simple random sampling techniques was used to draw one local government from the four local governments that constitute the Education zone that participated in the study. Then purposive sampling technique was then used to draw two schools from the local government that was selected to participate in the study. Two intact SS2 classes from the schools chosen for the study were randomly assigned to treatment and control group respectively. The rationale for using simple random sampling was to ensure that all the schools in the education zone are included in the study, while purposive sampling technique was used to select the schools from Abakaliki LGA that participated in the study, thereby involving the male and female students in the sample and the facilities in the two schools were similar.

                The instruments for data collection for this study was Literature-in-English Interest Inventory. The LIEII was developed by the researchers. The literature in English interest inventory had twenty five items and it was used to determine the students’ level of interest in Literature in-English. The LIEII was measured using four points rating scale – strongly agreed (4 points), agree (3 point), disagreed (2 points), and strongly disagree (1 point).

The instruments were faced validated by four experts. The four experts comprised two experts from Science Education Department (Measurement and Evaluation), and two experts from Arts Education Department (Education/English). All the experts were from the University of Nigeria Nsukka. Their comments were on the clarity of items, simplicity of vocabulary, relevance of items to the study, total coverage for use in the collection of data for the study and orderliness, and their comments were used to modify the instrument appropriately.

The reliability of the instruments was ascertained through the trial-testing of 25 SS2 students in Model Secondary School Nsukka. This School was chosen because it is outside the area of the study, and SS 2 students were used because the same SS 2 students was used in the area study. Cronbach Alpha was used to estimate the internal consistency of 25s items which gave an index of .763, indicating that it is high and reliable. The result from the trial testing offered the researcher the opportunity to determine whether the LIEII are useable, valid, and reliable.

Mean scores and standard deviation was used to answer the research questions. The hypotheses were tested using Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) at 0.05 level of significance. This was done to establish the differences that exist in the variables (dependent and independent).

 

Results

Research Question One:

What is the effects of Project-Based Learning and Guided Inquiry on students’ interest in literature?

 

Table 1: Mean and Standard Deviation of Interest Scores of Student in Literature when taught with PBL and GIM

Method   Pre test Posttest
N SD SD   Mean gain
Project Based Learning 60 2.53 0.14 3.54 0.11 1.01
Guided Inquiry 50 2.31 0.26 3.28 0.12 0.97

 

The result of the study as presented in Table 1 shows that, for each of the groups, the post-test interest means scores were greater than the pre-test means with the group taught using project based learning having a higher mean gain. This is an indication that project based learning enhanced students’ interest in Literature than the guided inquiry method.

 

Research Question 2:

What is the influence of gender on the students’ interest in literature?

 

Table 2: Mean and Standard Deviation of the gender of Students’ Interest in Literature

Variable   Pretest Inst. Posttest Inst.
Gender N SD SD Mean gain
Male 56 2.43 0.24 3.54 0.12 1.11
Female 54 2.45 0.23 3.53 0.13 1.08

Results in Table 2 showed the pre-test and post-test mean and standard deviations of male and female students’ interest in Literature. Result showed that, for both male and female students, the post-test interest mean scores were greater than the pre-test interest mean scores with the male students having a higher mean gain. This result showed that gender may have some effects on students’ interest in Literature.

Hypotheses 1

Ho1: There is no significant difference in the interest of students when exposed to PBL and GIM in Literature.

 

Table 3:Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) of students’ Interest in Literature.

Source Type III Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.
Corrected Model .254a 4 .063 4.688 .002
Intercept 9.773 1 9.773 721.810 .000
PreInt .000 1 .000 .011 .917
Method .191 1 .191 14.14 .000
Gender .000 1 .000 .018 .893
Method * Gender .001 1 .001 .047 .830
Error 1.422 105 .014    
Total 1377.737 110      
Corrected Total 1.675 109      

                The result in Table 3 shows that with respect to the interest mean scores of students taught Literature with project based learning and those taught with guided inquiry method, an F-ratio of 14.14 was obtained with associated exact probability value of 0.00. Since the associated probability value of 0.00 is less than 0.05 set as bench mark, the null hypothesis (H01) which stated that there is no significant difference between the mean interest scores of students’ exposed to PBL and those exposed to GIM in Literature is rejected. Thus, inference drawn is that, there was a significant difference between the mean interest scores of students’ exposed to PBL and those exposed to GIM in Literature with the students taught using project based learning having a higher mean interest in the posttest. This result shows that project based learning approach resulted in an improvement of students’ interest in Literature than the guided inquiry method.

Hypotheses 2.

H02: There is no significant difference between the mean interest scores of male and female students in Literature.

The result of the study as presented in Table 3 shows that with respect to the interest mean scores of male and female students taught Literature, an F-ratio of 0.018 was obtained with associated probability value of 0.89. Since the associated probability value of 0.89 is greater than 0.05 set as bench mark, the null hypothesis (H02) which stated that there is no significant difference between the mean interest scores of male and female students in Literature is not rejected. Inference drawn is that, there was no significant difference between the mean interest scores of male and female students in Literature. Though there was an improvement in the interest of both male and female students towards Literature, gender did not show any significant effect on students’ interest.

 

Discussion of Results

Research question one intended to find out the mean interest scores of students taught Literature using PBL and GIM. The results as shown in table 1 indicates that for each of the groups, the post-test interest means scores were greater than the pre-test means with the group taught using project-based learning having a higher mean gain. This indicated that despite the fact that the both methods are innovative, PBL method of teaching had greater influence on the students’ interest than GIM. This implies that project-based learning method of teaching enhanced students, interest in reading non-African prose works. However the result of the study is in line with the research findings of Drake and Long (2009), Supara (2013) and Zehila (2014), which indicated that Project Based Learning could be used as a means to guide learners advance towards autonomous learning and autonomous learning can only be triggered through the interest of the students. Therefore the result from table one indicates that when students participate actively through the PBL teaching method, their interest is ignited by what they do and it helps them to remember vividly what they have learned in the classroom.

In addition, hypotheses one intended to find out if there was a significant difference in the interest of students in Literature, when exposed to PBL and GIM. The inference that was drawn from the analysis was that, there was a significant difference between the mean interest scores of students’ exposed to PBL and those exposed to GIM in non-African prose with the students taught using project based learning having a higher mean interest in the posttest. This result shows that project based learning approach resulted in an improvement of students’ interest in non-African prose than the guided inquiry method. Thus the null hypothesis one (H01) was rejected. The findings of this study is in line with the findings of Amao & Fakeye (2013), which indicates that participation of students in classroom activities increases the interest of the students in literature-in-English class activity. Therefore project-based learning that fosters active participation will always trigger the interest of the students in reading prescribed prose text in literature classes.

Research question two sought to find out the influence of gender on the students’ interest in literature. The analysis of the finding was presented in table 2 and the result pointed out that the post-test interest mean scores of the male and female students were greater than the pre-test interest mean scores , but the male students had a higher mean gain. This implies that male students had more interest in literature than the female students; this could be because the teaching methods that were employed in class were activity based method that challenged the male students to act than the female students. The result of the finding is in line with that of Bügel and Buunk (2006), which indicated that male students performed significantly better than females on the gender -neutral text. The findings from this study also contrasts with the previous researches such as Zurina (2013) which suggests that females are better readers than the males. This implies that despite the fact that other researches have noted that the female students have more interest to read text, the result of the present finding showed that male students can also have more interest in reading prescribed prose than the female students. This could be because male students may like challenging task that spurs them up in doing or acting, and project-based method is filled with task that ignited their interest towards being innovative and presenting a worthwhile projects in a literature class.

Furthermore, hypotheses two was posed to find out if there was a significant difference between the mean interest scores of male and female students in non-African prose. The result of the study was shown in table 3 and it indicated that since the associated probability value of 0.89 was greater than 0.05 which was set as bench mark, the null hypothesis (H02) which stated that there is no significant difference between the mean interest scores of male and female students in non-African prose was not rejected. The conclusion was that, there was no significant difference between the mean interest scores of male and female students in non-African prose. Though there was an improvement in the interest of both male and female students towards non-African prose, gender did not show any significant effect on students’ interest. A finding from this study is in line with the findings of Bügel and Buunk (2006), which indicated that the differences between the sexes in prior knowledge contribute to gender difference in reading interest. Therefore there is no significant difference between the interest of male and female students in non-African prose.

 

Conclusion

From the result of the findings the study concluded that for sustainability of interest of students to take place, the teachers should try as much as possible to use project-based learning method in teaching literature-in-English. For when the students’ interest is sustained through active participation, it promotes educational interest in the sense that students develops interest in reading literary works that will make them better persons.

 

Recommendations

                In view of the findings of the study and their implications, the following recommendations were made;

  • Literature teachers should make use of project-based learning method in teaching Senior Secondary School students. By doing so the level of performance of students in the subject will be enhanced.
  • Project-based learning method of teaching should also be used as an instrument of building up and sustaining students’ interest and love for literature.
  • The State and Federal Ministry of Education should organize conferences and workshops for Literature teachers to expose the teachers on the use of project-based method of teaching.

 

References

Adler, P. A., Killess, S. J., & Adler, P. (1992). Socialization to gender roles; Popularity among elementary school boys and girls. Sociology of Education Journal, 65 (3), 169-187.

Amao, T. A, & Fakeye, D. O., (2013). Classroom participation and study habit as predictors of achievement in literature-in-English. Cross-Cultural Communication Journal Canada,8 (9), 3-8.

Anderson, R., Fielding, L., & Wilson, P. (1988). Growth in reading and how children spend their time outside of school. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 285-303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.23.3.2

Buck Institute for Education (2003). Project Based Learning Handbook: A Guide to Standards-Focused Project Based Learning for Middle and High School Teachers. Retrieved fromhttp://www.bie.org/tools/handbook

Bügel, K., & Buunk, B. P. (2006). Sex differences in foreign language text comprehension: The role of interests and prior knowledge. The Modern Language Journal, 80(1), 15-31.

David, J. (2008). What research says about project-based learning? Educational Leadership, 65, 80-82.

Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York, NY: Macmillan.

Hidi, S (2001). Interest and reading: Theoretical and practical considerations. Educational Psychology Review 13 (3).

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Okolo, I.C. (2003). General principles of literature. Ibadan: Book Builders.

Reeves, A.R (2004) Adolescents Talk About Reading:  Exploring Resistence to and Engagement with Text. International Reading Association.

Russell, C. D. (2012). Gender, academic and meanings of schooling.(A publishing Ph.D. dissertations). Columbia University.

Sivasubramaniam, S., (2006). Promoting the prevalence of literature in the practice of foreign and second language education: Issues and insights in English Language teaching and research articles. Asian EFL Journal, 8: 254-273.

Spronken-Smith, R., Angelo, T. Mathews., H. D’esteen, B., & Robertson, J. (2007). How effective is inquiry based learning in linking teaching and research? Paper prepared for an international colloquium on international policies and practices for Academic Enquiry, Marxwell, Winchester, UK, 19–21. April, 2007. Retrieved June 1 2007 from http://portal-live.solent,ac.uk/university/rtconference/colloquiumpapers.aspx.

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Duru, T., (2014). Standard Literature-in-English: (A Complete Guide to Learning) for WASSCE, NECO, NABTEB and Other Examinations. 2016-2020 Session. Standard Publishers, Owerri-Imo State, Nigeria.

Drake, K., & Long, D. (2009). Rebecca’s in the dark: A comparative study of problem-based learning and direct instruction/experiential learning in two 4th-grade classrooms. Journal of Elementary Science Education, 21, (1), 1-16.

Fakeye, D.O., (2011). Causes of declining enrolment in literature-in English classroom. GestetVoix, (5), 34-42.

Fakeye, D. O., (2012). Genral preference and senior secondary schools literature-in-English achievement. Cross-Cultural Communication Journal Canada, 8 (4), 39-45.

Supara, B. (2013). The study of the degree of effectiveness of project-based learning in relation to improving the language learning skills of KKU students. Khon Kaen University Language Institute, Thailand Official Conference Proceedings (1-21). Retrieved from www. iafor.org

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Zeliha, Z. G. (2014). Project based learning: a constructive way toward learner autonomy. International Journal of Languages’ Education and Teaching, 5(1), 182-193.

Zurina K. (2013). A study of students’ reading interests in a second language. International Education Studies journal, 6 (11), 160-170.


Volume 15, No.2 Article 2

EFFECT OF CONCEPT MAPPING INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT AND INTEREST IN SOME VALUE CONCEPTS IN UPPER BASIC EDUCATION SOCIAL STUDIES: IMPLICATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

 

Prof. Samuel Agozie Ezeudu, Monday Sampson & Ogochukwu Stella Okafor

Department of Social Science Education

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Abstract

This study determined the effect of concept mapping instructional strategy on students’ achievement and interest in value concepts in Junior Secondary School Social Studies for sustainable development. The study was conducted in Umuahia Education Zone and adopted non equivalent quasi-experimental research design. Six research questions and six hypotheses guided the study. The population of the study was 3,606 JSS2 students offering Social Studies. The sample size of the study was 160 JSS2 students. Purposive sampling technique was used to select four intact classes. Concept mapping instructional strategy was used to teach experimental group while lecture method was used to teach the control group. Two instruments, social studies achievement test (SOSAT) and social studies interest inventory (SOSII), developed by the researchers were used for data collection. The instruments indicated positive correlation coefficient of 0.82 and 0.87 for SOSAT and SOSIS respectively. Mean was used to answer research questions while analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significant. The findings of the study were that concept mapping instructional strategy has positive effect on students’ achievement and interest in value concept in Social Studies; that gender has no significant influence students’ achievement and interest when taught value concepts using concept mapping; that location has significant influence students’ achievement and interest when taught value concepts using concept mapping. The study recommends that teachers should adopt concept mapping strategy in teaching value concepts for sustainable development and that quality education should be provided in rural areas for sustainable development.

 

Key words: Social Studies, Concept mapping, Achievement, Interest, Gender and Location.

 

Introduction

The introduction of social studies education into the Nigeria education system was borne out of the obvious fact that the subject was considered very appropriate and relevant by the Federal Ministry of Education in helping the nation to achieve national unity and national consciousness. Nigeria as a multi-ethnic and multi-religious society needs effective means to properly and efficiently harness her abundant human and natural resources for holistic national development (Osakwe, 2010). One of the basic means of achieving the expected development lies with effective education of the populace to enable them acquire societal desirable values, attitudes, skills, knowledge.

In view of the above, the National Policy on Education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004) identified education as an instrument “par excellence” for effective national development. To further demonstrate the nation’s interest in producing responsive and responsible citizens through social studies education, the Federal Ministry of Education pronounced social studies a core and compulsory subject at the junior secondary school level (Joof, 2002). The central aim of the above move was to ensure that every Nigerian child at the junior secondary education level will be able to learn desirable national values such as patriotic feelings, respect for constituted authorities, respect for other people’s culture and belief system, tolerant to other religious practices other than one’s own. Indeed, social studies by its nature and content is value laden. According to Mezieobi, Mezieobi, Ossai and Sampson (2012), social studies at all level of education in Nigeria emphasizes desirable national values while the subject tends to disabuse and disengage the mind and energy of the learner from anti-national development activities such as armed robbery, disobedience  to government, bribery and corruption, discrimination, favouritism and religious fanaticism.

Apart from the above, social studies tends to equip the learner with critical, analytical thinking skills and integrative problem solving knowledge that will enable them live functional life in their society. No doubt, this is a lofty objective expected of social studies to achieve for the society. However, it is important to note that the realization or achievement of the above goal depends on effective teaching of social studies curriculum contents. This is true because if the teachers failed to teach junior secondary social studies effectively perhaps by using information and communication technology equipments, Nigeria will only have to consider her hope of achieving national unity and progress through social studies as a mirage. There has been an increasing emphasis on effective teaching of social studies to enable it remain relevant to the contemporary education need of the society. The claim of some scholars such as Osakwe (2010) and Mezieobi (2012) that Social Studies has not achieved its major goal of proper value orientation among Nigerian citizens could be as a result of the instructional strategies used by the teachers of the subject which makes the concepts taught impracticable. The use of ineffective teaching strategies for social studies instructional delivery has been largely responsible for social incompetency and the non accomplishment of citizenship education expected of Nigerian youths especially through learning social studies (Yusuf, 2009).

The inability to achieve good citizenship that hold on to desirable values such as gratitude, gentlemanliness, honesty, helpfulness, concern for others, hygienic living, co-operation, positive initiative, respect to constituted authority among several others through social studies could be linked to teachers’ choice of teaching strategies. Teachers’ use of teaching strategies particularly those relating to the conventional methods such as lecture method, have been found to be inadequate for a value-laden subject like Social Studies. This is exemplified by increasing level of anti-social activities in the society such as kidnapping, vandalization of public properties, religious and ethnic conflicts, discrimination amongst others (Akpochafo, 2010). These anti-social activities mentioned above are expected to be minimal if the curriculum contents of social studies are adequately inculcated to the learners with the use of innovative strategies that allow the learner to participate actively in the classroom activities. This therefore calls for a change in teaching strategy. According to Nwosu (2007), the use of effective teaching strategy in the classroom is an important predictor of students’ academic achievement. Similarly, Arisa (2011) argued that teaching students with innovative teaching strategies, such as simulation, role playing, game, concept mapping among others, produces positive results.

Indeed, there are numerous innovative instructional strategies, as mentioned above, that can help students to understand social studies content. One of the instructional strategies is concept mapping which is considered, an important strategy by teachers and education stake holders. Concept mapping is a visual organizer that can enrich students’ understanding of a new concept (Birbili, 2007). Using a graphic organizer, students think about the concept in several ways. Concept mapping is a powerful instructional strategy, which allows for depiction of both the interrelationships among the elements of contents and relationship between new and prior knowledge. Concept mapping has positive effects on various teaching outcomes as well. Concept mapping is an active teaching strategy that encourages critical thinking, enable decision making and learners taking responsibility for their learning (Yearwood, 2005).

According to Merlot (2006), learners can only think critically about contents of subject matter to be learnt if they understand the basic terms and the relationship between associated concepts. Thus, concept map enables learners to actively construct a conceptual framework to which new ideas and knowledge are added, related, and refined thereby improving on their learning capability and strategy. Zollman and Robert (2008) affirmed that unless there is understanding of the contents of materials to be learnt in terms of the basic concepts, students are bound to commit unassimilated data into short-term memory and so no meaningful learning will occur. According to Zollman and Robert (2008), meaningful learning occurs when information is presented in a potentially meaningful way, and the learner is encouraged to anchor new ideas with the establishment of links between old and new materials. In particular, concept mapping offers a technique for revealing students’ cognitive structure, and involves the following systemic steps: identifying the major components of the concept, arranging the concept’s components in hierarchical order, linking the components with linking phrases, making cross links with directed lines.

The importance of teaching strategies as means of inculcating knowledge to students cannot be over emphasized. The 21st century Social Studies classroom is based upon a culture of inquiry and knowledge rather than information dissemination. Concept mapping makes it easy for students to understand, remember, and communicate complex information. Sometimes human (including students) brain feels as if it is scrambled because of information overload, overwhelm or ineffective use of the brain. This often leads to inability to solve problems effectively, lack of creative thought, lack of focus, difficulty giving great presentations, problems organizing one’s thoughts, poor communication, missing out tasks when planning projects, and forgetting important information. Thus, there is the need for teachers (especially social studies teachers) to use instructional strategies that give students the opportunity to participate actively and exercise their brain through critical thinking and analysis since such teaching strategy could enhance students’ achievement in social studies.

According to Nwagbo (2013) academic achievement could be getting high grades and a high grade point average (GPA) level. In the context of this study, academic achievement means learning outcome which has to do with the knowledge attained from teaching process, it is also known as achievement. Students’ achievements in social studies over the years have been poor (Ugorji, 2013). For example, the Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination (JSSCE) annual reports show that less than 50% of candidates passed social studies at credit level and above between 2010 and 2016 in Umuahia education zone.  Eze (2016) posited a reason for these poor achievements. The author noted that the teaching methods adopted by teachers do not make the learning of social studies easy for students. The teaching methods used by teachers in teaching junior secondary school social studies contribute to students’ poor achievements in social studies. The prevailing traditional teaching methods do not actively involve the learners in the learning process and seem to deprive the learners of taking charge of their learning, thus, affecting their performances in examinations. Effective instructional strategy is one which encourages students’ active participation in the teaching/learning process which could help the students to obtain higher achievement in social studies (Gatlin, 2013). This higher achievement could also increase their interest in social studies. Interest means attention to something (Adam, 2010). In this context, interest means attention to studying of social studies. Furthermore, Adeleye (2011) views interest as the curiosity to do something. In the context of this study interest means the curiosity to study relevant social studies materials and contents.

Some studies on students’ achievement and interest in school subjects have established that there are variances in students’ academic achievement and interest in terms of gender and location. On the other hand, some other studies found out that when exposed to the same instructional strategy, gender and location do not have significant varied on students’ academic achievement and interest on the various school subjects. Indeed, the issue of the influence of gender and location on students’ academic achievement has not been settled. Therefore, this study sought to find out the effect of concept mapping instructional strategy on students’ achievement and interest in social studies with focus on the interactive influence of gender and location on students’ achievement and interest in social studies.

 

Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study.

  • What is the difference in mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method?
  • What is the difference in mean interest scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method?
  • What is the influence of gender on mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method?
  • What is the influence of gender on mean interest scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method?
  • What is the influence of location on mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method?
  • What is the influence of location on mean interest scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method?

 

Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance.

Ho1: There is no significant difference in mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method.

Ho2: There is no significant difference in mean interest scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method.

Ho3: There is no significant difference in the influence of gender on mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method.

Ho4: There is no significant difference in the influence of gender on mean interest scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method.

Ho5: There is no significant difference in the influence of location on mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method.

Ho6: There is no significant difference in the influence of location on mean interest scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method.

 

Research Method

The study adopted quasi-experimental research design, precisely non equivalent group design. Quasi-experimental research design according to Ali (2006) is a research design that does not lay credence to rigorous experimental control. This study is quasi-experimental because intact classes were used hence selection of each subject (research sample) is not randomized. The study was carried out in Umuahia Education Zone, Abia State. The zone consists of four (4) Local Government Areas – Umuahia North, Umuahia South, Ikwuano and Umunneochi. The population of the study comprised all junior secondary two (JS2) students in Umuahia education zone of Abia State. The education zone has forty-one (41) junior secondary schools with a population of 3606 JS2 students (PPSMB Umuahia, 2015). The sample size for the study was 160 JS2 social studies students. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to draw the sample. At first, purposive sampling technique was used to select co-educational schools. Then, simple random sampling technique was used to select two schools each from urban and rural areas each. Finally, simple random sampling technique was used to select one intact class from each of the four selected schools.

Social studies achievement test (SOSAT) and social studies interest scale (SOSIS) were used for data collection from the respondents. The SOSAT was made up of 20 multiple choice question items with ABCD alternatives (options). The 20 SOSAT question items was compiled by the researchers. The SOSAT was used to evaluate the learning outcome (achievement) of the JS2 students both before and at the end of the instructional treatment (pretest and posttest). The 20 question items were selected by the researchers based on the contents in the JS2 social studies (i.e Drug abuse, drug trafficking, corruption and conflict). These topics were chosen because they are value laden and can be effectively taught using concept mapping. The SOSIS which was also developed by the researchers was divided into two sections A and B. Section A of the SOSIS contains information on the personal data of the respondents while section B of the SOSIS contains social studies interest items. Data were collected from the four intact classes using the SOSAT and SOSIS. The four intact classes were made to cover the same learning contents (drug abuse, drug trafficking, corruption and conflict). Four lesson plans were produced for the concept mapping instructional strategy (experimental group). On the other hand, four lesson plans on the same topics (drug abuse, drug trafficking, corruption and conflict) were produced for the lecture method group (control group). The treatment lasted for four weeks. The researchers made use of the permanent social studies teachers in the sampled schools. The reason for the choice of using the permanent teachers of social studies for the experiment was that if a new teacher other than the regular teachers comes in to teach the students using any instructional strategy, the students may think that something (experiment) is going on and that may affect their achievement and interest in social studies. The permanent teachers were properly trained using the concept mapping instructional strategy lesson plans (CMISLPs) and the lecture method lesson plans (LMLPs) during the training session. The essence of training the teachers was to ensure uniform instruction towards the validity of the experiment for easy generalization. However, before treatment, both group (experimental and control) were given pre-test. After the experiment for four weeks and the control group taught the same learning units for four weeks using the lecture method lesson plans, the post-test was administered on both the experimental and control groups of the intact classes. The scores of the experimental group in both pre-test and post-test was recorded and compared with the scores gotten by the control group in both pre-test and post-test. The research questions were answered using mean. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significant.

 

Results

Research Question One: What is the difference in mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method?

 

Table 1: Showing the difference in mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method.

Group Pre-test Post-test Mean achievement gain
  X SD X SD  
Concept mapping (Treatment) 12.81 5.21 41.67 3.59 28.86
Lecture method (Control) 12.02 4.45 18.00 3.52 5.98

 

The result in table 1 shows that the pre-test achievement mean score of students taught social studies using concept mapping is 12.81. The standard deviation of pre-test of the students taught social studies using concept mapping is 5.21. The students taught social studies without concept mapping obtained a pre-test achievement mean score of 12.02 and a standard deviation of 4.45. The result further shows that the post-test achievement mean score of students taught social studies using concept mapping is 41.67 and their standard deviation is 3.59. The students taught social studies without concept mapping obtained achievement mean score of 18.00 and a standard deviation of 3.52. The result indicates that the mean achievement gain of students taught social studies using concept mapping is 2.86 while that of students taught social studies without concept mapping is 5.98

 

H01: There is no significant difference in mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method.

 

Table 2: ANCOVA analysis of the significant difference in mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method.

Source of variation Sum of square df Mean square F cal F tab
Covariates -115.4 -115.4 -18.5504  
Explained

(R)

33.7021 2 16.85105 2.7088 2.021
Residual

(E)

267.4979 158 6.2209    
Total 301.2000 158 6.6933    

 

The result in table 2 shows that f-cal is 2.7088 while the f-tab is 2.021. Since the f-cal of 2.7088 is more than the f-tab value of 2.021, the null hypothesis one is therefore rejected. This indicates that there is significant difference in mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method.

 

Research Question Two: What is the difference in mean interest scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method?

 

 

 

 

 

Table 3: Showing the difference in mean interest scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method.

Group Pre-test Post-test Mean interest gain
  X SD X SD  
Concept mapping (Treatment) 13.39 4.91 33.06 3.44 19.67
Lecture method (Control) 13.63 5.11 20.63 3.34 7.00

 

The result in table 3 shows that the pre-test interest mean score of students taught social studies using concept mapping is 13.39 with a standard deviation of 4.91 while that of students taught social studies without concept mapping is 13.63 with a standard deviation of 5.11. The result further shows that the post-test interest mean score of students taught social studies using concept mapping is 33.06 with a standard deviation of 3.44 while that of students taught social studies without concept mapping is 20.63 with a standard deviation of 3.34. The result indicates that the mean interest gain of students taught social studies using concept mapping is 19.67 while that of students taught social studies without concept mapping is 7.00

 

H02: There is no significant difference in mean interest scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method.

 

Table 4: ANCOVA analysis of significant difference in mean interest scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method.

Source of variation Sum of square df Mean square F cal F tab
Covariates -66 -66 -7.5812  
Explained (R) 24.4719 2 12.2360 2.7088 0.686
Residual (E) 191.5281 158 8.7058    
Total 216 158 9    

 

The result in table 4 shows that f-cal is 2.7088 while the f-tab is 0.686. Since the f-cal of 2.7088 is more than the f-tab value of 0.686, the null hypothesis one is therefore rejected. This indicates that there is significant difference in mean interest scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method.

Research Question Three: What is the influence of gender on mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping?

 

Table 5: Showing the influence of gender on mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping.

Gender Pre-test Post-test Mean achievement gain
  X SD X SD  
Male 15.81 5.47 23.54 4.04 7.73
Female 15.79 5.45 23.51 4.03 7.72

 

The result in table 5 shows that the pre-test achievement mean score of male students taught social studies using concept mapping is 15.81 with a standard deviation of 5.47 while that of female students taught social studies using concept mapping is 15.79 with a standard deviation of 5.45. The result further shows that the post-test achievements mean score of male students taught social studies using concept mapping is 23.54 with a standard deviation of 4.04 while that of female students taught social studies using concept mapping is 23.51 with a standard deviation of 4.03. The result indicates that the mean achievement gain of male students taught social studies using concept mapping is 7.73 while that of female students taught social studies using concept mapping is 7.72

 

H03: There is no significant difference in the influence of gender on mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping.

 

Table 6: ANCOVA analysis of significant difference in the influence of gender on mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping.

Source of variation Sum of square df Mean square F cal F tab
Covariates -111.2 -111.2 -12.2212  
Explained (R) 31.6180 2 15.4531 1.4413 1.972
Residual  (E) 281.4312 158 7.1351    
Total 313.0592 158 7.0411    

 

The result in table 6 shows that f-cal is 1.4413 while the f-tab is 1.972. Since the f-cal of 1.4413 is less than the f-tab value of 1.972, the null hypothesis one is therefore accepted. This indicates that gender has no significant difference in mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping.

 

Research Question Four: What is the influence of gender on mean interest scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping?

Table 7: Showing the influence of gender on mean interest scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping.

Gender Pre-test Post-test Mean interest gain
  X SD X SD  
Male 14.81 4.33 22.97 3.11 8.16
Female 14.82 4.33 23.10 3.12 8.28

 

The result in table 7 shows that the pre-test interest mean score of male students taught social studies using concept mapping is 14.81 with a standard deviation of 4.33 while that of female students taught social studies using concept mapping is 14.82 with a standard deviation of 4.33. The result further shows that the post-test interest mean score of male students taught social studies using concept mapping is 22.97 with a standard deviation of 3.11 while that of female students taught social studies using concept mapping is 23.10 with a standard deviation of 3.12. The result indicates that the mean interest gain of male students taught social studies using concept mapping is 8.16 while that of female students taught social studies using concept mapping is 8.28

 

H04: There is no significant difference in the influence of gender on mean interest scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping.

 

Table 8: ANCOVA analysis of significant difference in the influence of gender on mean interest scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping.

Source of variation Sum of square df Mean square F cal F tab
Covariates -110.9 -110.9 -12.5504  
Explained (R) 32.7033 2 17.85105 1.1088 1.021
Residual (E) 271.4119 158 8.2209    
Total 304.1442 158 8.6933    

 

The result in table 8 shows that f-cal is 1.1088 while the f-tab is 1.021. Since the f-cal of 1.1088 is less than the f-tab value of 1.021, the null hypothesis one is therefore rejected. This indicates that gender has no significant difference in mean interest scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping.

 

Research Question Five: What is the influence of location on mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping?

 

 

Table 9: Showing the influence of location on mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping.

Location Pre-test Post-test Mean achievement gain
  X SD X SD  
Urban 15.72 5.25 26.17 4.15 10.45
Rural 13.11 4.15 20.10 3.12 6.99

 

The result in table 9 shows that the pre-test mean achievement score of urban students taught social studies using concept mapping is 15.72 with a standard deviation of 5.25 while that of rural students taught social studies using concept mapping is 13.11 with a standard deviation of 4.15. The result further shows that the post-test mean achievement score of students taught social studies using concept mapping is 26.17 with a standard deviation of 4.15 while that of rural students taught social studies using concept mapping is 20.10 with a standard deviation of 3.12. The result indicates that the mean achievement gain of urban students taught social studies using concept mapping is 10.45 while that of rural students taught social studies using concept mapping is 6.99

 

H05: There is no significant difference in the influence of location on mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping.

 

Table 10: ANCOVA analysis of significant difference in the influence of location on mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping.

Source of variation Sum of square df Mean square F cal F tab
Covariates -118.6 -118.6 -19.5504  
Explained (R) 43.1133 2 17.22311 2.9721 2.122
Residual (E) 284.2521 158 7.5512    
Total 301.3654 158 7.7623    

 

The result in table 10 shows that f-cal is 2.9721 while the f-tab is 2.122. Since the f-cal of 2.9721 is more than the f-tab value of 2.122, the null hypothesis one is therefore rejected. This indicates that location has significant difference in mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping.

 

Research Question Six: What is the influence of location on mean interest scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping?

 

 

Table 11: Showing the influence of location on mean interest scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping.

Location  Pre-test Post-test Mean achievement gain
  X SD X SD  
Urban 13.67 4.22 26.55 5.23 12.88
Rural 11.22 3.23 19.12 3.41 7.90

 

The result in table 11 shows that the pre-test mean interest score of urban students taught social studies using concept mapping is 13.67 with a standard deviation of 4.22 while that of rural students taught social studies using concept mapping is 11.22 with a standard deviation of 3.23. The result further shows that the post-test mean interest score of urban students taught social studies using concept mapping is 26.55 with a standard deviation of 5.23 while that of rural students taught social studies using concept mapping is 19.12 with a standard deviation of 3.41. The result indicates that the mean interest gain of students taught social studies using concept mapping is 12.88 while that of rural students taught social studies using concept mapping is 7.90.

 

H06: There is no significant difference in the influence of location on mean interest scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping.

 

Table 12: ANCOVA analysis of significant difference in the influence of location on mean interest scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping.

Source of variation Sum of square df Mean square F cal F tab
Covariates -112.2 -112.2 -15.4411  
Explained (R) 32.3266 2 14.71216 2.8411 2.121
Residual (E) 282.1234 158 5.2312    
Total 314.4500 158 6.1021    

 

The result in table 12 shows that f-cal is 2.8411 while the f-tab is 2.121. Since the f-cal of 2.8411 is more than the f-tab value of 2.121, the null hypothesis one is therefore rejected. This indicates that location has significant difference in mean interest scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping.

 

Summary of the Findings

The following are the summary of the findings.

  • That there is a significant difference in mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method.
  • That there is a significant difference in mean interest scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method.
  • That gender has no influence on mean achievement scores of students when taught social studies using concept mapping.
  • That gender has no influence on mean interest scores of students when taught social studies using concept mapping.
  • That location has influence on mean achievement scores of students when taught social studies using concept mapping.
  • That location has influence on mean interest scores of students when taught social studies using concept mapping.

 

Discussion of the Findings

The findings of the study are discussed in line with the research questions and hypotheses that guided the study. The finding of the study with respect to research question one shows that there is a significant difference in mean achievement scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method. This finding agrees with the earlier findings of Eke (2004) and Yearwood (2005) who found out that concept mapping instructional strategy has significant positive influence on students’ academic performance. Furthermore, Zollman & Robert (2008) as well as Abdullahi (2010) also found out in their respective studies that the use of innovative teaching strategy such as concept mapping enhances students’ academic achievement. The reason for enhancement of students’ academic performance as a result of the use of innovative instructional materials such as concept mapping could be as a result of the fact that concept mapping instructional method explains concepts better using mapping strategy such that the students easily understand the relationships between and among concepts. With respect to research question two, it shows that there is a significant difference in mean interest scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping and those taught social studies using conventional method. This finding supports the earlier finding of Oghene (2007) who found out that concept mapping instructional strategy help to sustain students’ academic interest. Ibuzu (2007) also found out that innovative teaching method such as concept mapping enhances students’ interest in learning. Furthermore, the present finding is in line with the findings of John (2007) who found out that concept mapping instructional strategy improve students’ interest in learning. This findings show that when students are given opportunity to participate actively in teaching and learning process, their interest in learning activities increases. The reason for the constant findings which shows that the use of concept mapping enhances students’ interest in learning including interest in social studies could be as a result of the fact that concept mapping instructional method explains concepts better using mapping strategy such that the students easily understand the relationships between and among concepts.

The finding of the study with respect to research question three shows that there is no significant difference in the influence of gender on mean achievement scores of students when taught social studies using concept mapping. This finding supports the earlier findings of Madu (2004) and Okebukola (2005) who found out that gender has no significant influence on students’ academic achievement when taught using innovative strategy like concept mapping. Ezeudu (2005) in a study also found out that being a male or female does not influence students’ academic achievement when taught using the same teaching method. However, the present finding contradicts with the earlier findings of Ezeugwu (2007) and Gilbert (2009) who found out that gender has significant influence on students’ academic achievement when taught using the same innovative teaching strategy.  With respect to research question four, it shows that there is no significant difference in the influence of gender on mean interest scores of students when taught social studies using concept mapping. This finding agrees with the earlier finding of Eze (2016) and Nwagbo (2013) who found out that gender has no significant influence on students’ interest in learning when taught using the same teaching method. However, the present finding contradicts the earlier findings of Ekwe (2013) who found out in study that gender has significant influence on students’ academic interest when taught using the same teaching method.

The finding of the study with respect to research question five shows that there is a significant difference in the influence of location on mean achievement scores of students when taught social studies using concept mapping. This finding supports the earlier findings of Adebisi (2008) and Chukwu (2009) who found out that location has significant influence on students’ academic achievement when taught using the same teaching method. However, the present finding contradicts the earlier findings of Onuwa (2004) and Kalu (2004) who found out in study that location has no significant influence on students’ academic achievement when taught using the same teaching method. The finding of the study with respect to research question six shows that there is a significant difference in the influence of location on mean interest scores of students when taught social studies using concept mapping. This finding is in line with the earlier findings of Chukwu (2009) and Adeji (2011) who found out that school location of students has significance influence on their interest in learning when taught using the same teaching method. However, the present finding contradicts the earlier findings of Onuwa (2004) and Nze (2006) who found out in a study that school location of students has no significant influence on students’ academic interest when taught using the same teaching method.

 

 

Implications of the findings for sustainable development

The Nigerian society has been eroded with negative values such as terrorism, kidnapping, armed robbering, vandalism, political thurggery among others. No doubt, there is adequate value concepts in Upper Basic Education curriculum that could be effectively used to train responsible and cultured individuals in Nigeria. However, constant ineffective use of teaching methods by teachers in teaching social studies has made it extremely difficult for social studies to achieve the objective of inculcating right values to the Nigerian citizens. Interestingly, the findings of this study have shown that the use of concept mapping instructional strategy could enhance students’ achievement and interest in value contents in social studies curriculum.  The study has found out that the use of concept mapping instructional strategy enhance students’ achievement and interest in value concepts of social studies. The implication is that for Nigeria to achieve sustainable development through social studies curriculum that designed to train responsive and responsible citizens, teachers have to use concept mapping instructional strategy in teaching social studies.

Furthermore, the study found out that school location has influence on students’ achievement and interest in value concepts of social studies. The implication of the finding is that a country that aims to achieve sustainable development cannot afford to have disparity in terms of quality teaching and learning in rural and urban schools. Thus, there is need for proper training of teachers and infrastructural provision both in rural and urban schools to enhance quality teaching and learning for sustainable development.

 

Recommendation of the Study

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made;

  • The study recommends that social studies teachers should adopt concept mapping strategy in teaching social studies curriculum concepts. This strategy will help to enhance students’ achievement and interest in value concepts of social studies.
  • The study also recommends that quality education in terms of infrastructure should be provided in rural areas as it is in urban areas.
  • Government should organize workshop for serving social studies teachers to enable them learn how to develop and use concept mapping in teaching social studies.

 

References

Abdullahi, A. (2010). Effect of concept mapping strategy on junior secondary school students’ interest and achievement in social studies. Unpublished MED Project Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

Adam, G. (2010). Interest and mathematics achievement in problem solving approach. Retrieved on 3/8/09. http://:www.edu.intermap.org.

Adebisi, O. (2008). The effect of concept mapping instructional strategy on students’ achievement in HIV/AIDS contents of senior secondary school biology. Asian Journal of Health Studies, 12(2), 71-78.

Adeji, A. (2011). The influence of location on students’ achievement in HIV/AIDS contents of senior secondary school biology. International Journal of Education Research and Development, 8(2), 96-102.

Adeleye, O. (2011). Increasing situational interest in the classroom. Educational Psychological Review 13 (3), 211-224.

Akpochafo, W. (2010). Social studies for Tertiary students in Nigeria. Benin: New Age publishers.

Benton, T. (2000). Research variables: concepts and uses. Chester: McGrove Book Limited.

Birbili, M. (2007). Mapping Knowledge: Concept Maps in Early Childhood Education. Retrieved October 4, 2014.

Chukwu, O. (2009). The influence of location on students’ achievement in HIV/AIDS contents of junior secondary school social studies. Pacific Journal of Health Studies, 11(2), 212-218.

Ezeugwu, E. N. (2007) Effects of self Regulated and Lecture MODELS ON Students Achievement in Biology. Nigeria Journal of Functional Education 5(1) 82-91

Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National policy on Education. Lagos NERDC press.

Ibuzu, C. (2007). The effect of pictorial instructional materials on students’ achievement and interest in HIV/AID contents in Health and Physical Education. Benin Journal of Health and Disease Studies, 6(1), 98-104.

John, B. (2007). The effect of concept mapping instructional strategy on students’ achievement and interest in HIV/AID contents in Health and Physical Education. Benin Journal of Health and Disease Studies, 6(1), 68-74.

Kalu, I. (2004). The influence of location on students’ interest in HIV/AIDS contents in biology. European Journal of Health Studies, 17(2), 251-256.

Madu, C. D. (2004). Relationship between home environmental factors and secondary school student’s academic achievement in Geography. Ph.D. Thesis of the Department of Science Education, UNN.

Merlot, S. (2006). Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching. 2 (3) 110 – 121

Mezieobi, D. I.; Mezieobi, S. A.; Ossai, J. N. & Sampson, M. (2013). Teaching values for stemming corruption in social studies classroom in Nigeria secondary schools. African Review of Arts, Social Sciences and Education, 2(1). 101-130.

Mezieobi, D.I. (2012). The Place of Social Studies Education in achieving Political Stability through Information Management Counselling. A Paper Presented at the 30th Annual Conference of Counselling Association (CASSON) held at Gidan Matasa, Minna.

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Offorma, G. C. (2004). Gender and language. International journal of Arts Education. 4 (2) 38-49.

Oghene. J. (2007). The effect of project method instructional strategy on students’ achievement and interest in HIV/AID contents in biology. Benin Journal of Health and Disease Studies, 6(1), 56-62.

Oguniyi, A. O. (2008). Effect of gender and location on students achievement in Biology. Journal of Science Education. (8(2), 92-106.

Onuwa, E. (2004). The influence of location on students’ interest in HIV/AIDS contents in Health and Physical Education. European Journal of Health Studies, 17(2), 341-347.

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Yearwood, D. N. (2005). Is Your Selection of Content Delivery Vehicles Closely Aligned With Your Pedagogical Goals? Essays in Education, 14, (Summer).

Yusuf, K.B. (2009). Effect of Concept Mapping Strategy on Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement in Biology, Obafemi Owode Local Government, Ogun Masters’ Student Project.

Zollman, D., & Robert, G. (2008). Teaching and Learning Physics with Interactive Video. Lincoln, USA. University of Nebraska, Lincoln Press.


Volume 15, No.2 Article 1

MORAL LITERACY EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE PEACE AND DEVELOPMENT: AN IMPERATIVE FOR YOUTH DEVELOPMENT IN

OGBA COMMUNITY

 

Prof. S. C. Nwizu and Franklin. N. Okeke

Department of Adult Education and Extra Mural Studies,

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Abstract

The meaningful growth of any community largely depends on the quality of the youths that make up the community. Therefore, to ensure that any community enjoys sustainable peace and development, issues capable of triggering a downturn in the moral and educational progress of the youths are ingenuously handled. Hence this paper focused on Moral Literacy Education as a tool for sustainable peace and development in Ogba community of Rivers State. It also laid bare, some salient concepts relevant to the topic. The study also explicated the role of sustainable moral literacy programmes in the restoration of peace and development in Ogba Community. It advocated for total and immediate revival of moral literacy instructions in all the schools in the community. The study called on the local government authorities to revive the under-utilized Omoku Civic Centre; and recommended that the Federal Ministry of Education should see to the immediate review of our school curriculum so as to rekindle the dying embers of moral literacy in the country.

 

Keywords: Moral Literacy, Education, Sustainable Peace, Sustainable Development.

 

Introduction

The absence of strong moral literacy initiative in Nigerian schools today, remains an unfortunate omission from our national efforts to strengthen all-round education. This is because, among other things, educational institutions are created to serve as sources of truth and honesty (UNESCO, 2008). As observed by Brimble, and Stevenson, (2005), educational institutions are also places where students are shaped not only academically but also morally. Consequently, from the above revelations, one wonders why there has never been a serious step taken to tackle the glaring evidence of moral decay among the youths in the country. In our higher institutions, except for the occasional college ethics course offered, a well-organized moral training of any sort is absent. Although curriculum planners in the country have argued that by the introduction of civic and religious studies in the secondary school curriculum, the issue of moral instruction has been taken care of.  But in as much as there are some elements of moral lessons in the subjects earlier mentioned, the fact remains that the moral content remains worrisomely shallow.

In other words, the positive contribution of education to human development remains almost boundless, but often time, we fail to look at the issue of morality as one aspect every educational system should be able to sustain and uphold. Isn’t it a bit of self-deception to think or presume that education lacking in organized and rich curriculum of morals/ethics would bequeath our youths with the ability to make right ethical choices when the question of propriety and impropriety of human act poses itself?

To stress the importance of moral literacy in our bid to educate our populace; and as something that requires conscious cultivation, Nancy (2007, p. 365), argues that “skills and knowledge specific to making ethical choices in life are learned capabilities requiring skills in which individuals can be more competent”. She further argues that “in as much as some would say that the values parents share with their children from a tender age is always enough to put them through when making ethical decisions, “moral literacy should go further to reflect and emphasize the development of these abilities and should also seek to continuously get enriched through education”. To support the above assertion by Nancy, Zdenek & Schochor, (2007) posit that moral literacy is not a naturally-gained process, but is gained with the effort to develop the right ethical skills.

Albeit, moral literacy education on its own, even in full operation, is not and cannot be an absolute guaranty of human safety (peace) all over the world. This, as Nancy (2007) observed, could be as a result of the fact that more people are forming their own moral standard as the day progresses regardless of what they have been taught by their parents. Hence, as the society is increasingly fraught with this situation, more conflicting moral standards and contrived moral compass are formed in the process and the rightness or wrongness of our actions becomes a thing subjected to personal choices in which people choose what level of moral standard to observe. Again, culture could cause notable disparities in what constitute moral standards all over the world but that does not write-off some definitive standards mutually inclusive in all cultures such as truthfulness, respect for human life, equity, fairness etc.

Despite the ever-present negative bearing the omission of moral education from our school curriculum has caused in all nooks and crannies of Nigeria, this paper, judging from its title, has its major thrust on Ogba Community which is one of the towns that make up Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State.

A summary of the narrative given on the history of Ogba Land holds thus:

The Ogba people, are indigenous Igbo-speaking people situated in the extreme south-west of modern Rivers State of Nigeria with an estimated population of 400,000 people. As a result of the discovery of oil in Ogba Community, it has undergone significant political, social, economic and environmental changes during the past several decades. However, despite its image as one of the main contributors to the wealth of Nigeria, there is a lot of poverty in many communities resulting from unemployment, under-employment, low wage jobs and deterioration of the natural resource base. (Francis 1995, p. 183-184).

 

In other words, from participatory observation, and information gathered from oral interview, this writer can state that Ogba Community has always been known to be peaceful people who rally round their businesses without bearing the burden of fear. The Ogba people share boundary with Egbema, Ahoada, and Ndoni, with no traces of full blown war between them. But this is no longer obtainable in the community as peace has been eroded with blithe disregard. In short, the community now thrives on providing a safe haven to varying cult groups and this has plunged the once peaceful community into unprecedented and unparalleled turmoil, with the possibility of death occurrence averaging two persons per week. This gory situation has become the reason why many people are leaving the community on daily basis. Establishments, both private and public are pulling out in numbers because no business can thrive in an atmosphere of unbridled violence and carnage. Similarly, unemployment is skyrocketing as a result of the gap the relocation of these businesses has brought about and people now live here every day in fear.

As a result of the condition of extreme cult-related activities among the youth which culminate to recurring cases of kidnapping, rape and killings, what obtains in Ogba Land is youth restiveness at its nth degree. There is, therefore, every reason to argue that morality has been debased into shrinks and that there is no premium placed on human lives any more in the community. This is also evidenced by the reports given by some of our national dailies – Nation Newspaper and Thisday newspaper – where they reported news of massive bloodletting by suspected cult groups on the 19thof February and on the 7th of March, 2016 respectively.

Therefore, judging from these gory activities playing through the ecological space called Ogba Community, one could argue that the ugly situation betrays near dearth of moral consciousness among the youth who are the core perpetrators of this carnage and should be tackled head on before it degenerates to a level beyond redemption.

Unarguably, the question of morality goes beyond killings and kidnapping to include other social ills such as corruption, stealing, forgery, nudity, etc., but this writer, however, was drawn to put up this paper mostly as a result of the high level of murder cases, kidnapping and rape orchestrated by cultists in the community, of which members are mainly the youths.

In the light of the above, therefore, this paper clarified concepts such as morality, moral literacy, education, sustainable peace, and sustainable development. The relationship between peace and development was also discussed.

 

Conceptual Clarifications

Morality:

Morality is “a system of rules that ideally should govern human behavior with respect to right and wrong, good and evil” (Elijah 2005, p.3-5). Drawing on the definition above, morality therefore is the core of nature of human acts such as: honesty, adultery, murder, fairness, forgery etc.

Morality has also been defined by Ohwovorione, (2013) as standards, principles of good behavior. Thus, moral values imply behavior, attitude exhibited and encouraged by members of the society for the fact that they are both good and desirable to mankind generally as against those behaviors condemned and discouraged. Examples of moral values include faithfulness, self-discipline, honesty, humility, brotherliness, patience, hardworking, truthfulness etc. The definitions given by the above mentioned researchers inform therefore, that morality as a concept concerns itself with the rightness or wrongness of human conducts. It is its knowledge that bequeaths man with the tendencies to engage his mind in ethical juxtapositions as to which thought to act upon and otherwise.

 

Moral Literacy:

Moral literacy involves “a complex set of skills and habits that can be cultivated and enriched through education. Like other forms of literacy, it is best developed in the home and the community as well as in the schools” (Nancy, 2007 p.365). Philosophically, Herman (2007), defined this concept as the capacity to react and read the main elements of the moral world. One can also say that moral literacy represents a set of practical knowledge that can be applied in situations that demand ethical choices. Of striking importance in the definition given by Nancy above is the acknowledgement of the fact that moral literacy involves a conscious cultivation process. That is to say that like other social skills necessary for the survival of man in his community, moral literacy can be taught and learned and as such, demands a conscious effort.

 

Education:

Oroka (2005), views education as “the intentional bringing about of a desirable state of mind; and relates to processes and activities that can contribute to or involves something that is worthwhile”. Implicit in the definitions of education above, is the fact that, the concept of education derives its true meaning and essence from a commingling of knowledge and moral. Remove one from the other and we are left with a handicapped reflection of what education represents. Education can also be seen as the process in which “the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values of a group of people is transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training, or research” (Anike, 2014). Drawing on the definitions of education above, one can rightly infer that education derives its essence from these basic ideas: the idea that knowledge must be gained; the idea that through this knowledge gained, attitudes are better shaped to reflect the acceptable mode of behavior of the society and the idea that the knowledge gained can translate to practical and demonstrable skills. But of greater relevance to us here from the basic ideas contained in the concept of education is the idea that attitude is better reformed through education. This therefore suggests that a well-planned educational system, regardless of the level must echo attitudinal reforms which, to a very large extent borders on morality.

 

Sustainable Peace and Development: Concept and Relationship.

Literally, peace and development are words with separate meanings but there hardly can be one without other. No wonder the report of the United Nations Secretary-General on the “Prevention of Armed Conflict” correctly stated that peace building and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing concepts (Galymzhan, 2001). That is why the absence of peace, most often, retards development.

Best, (2006), for example, defines “peace as the absence of war”. By stretch of logic, this definition means that war is the absence of peace. However, this definition of peace, despite its attractiveness leaves much to be desired as far as the definition of peace is concerned. This is because the absence of full blown war does not always guaranty peace.  In a bid to define peace, Leo, and Ray, (2012), opine that peace is “a state of well-being that is characterized by trust, compassion, and justice. In this state, we can be encouraged to explore as well as celebrate our diversity, and search for the good in each other without the concern for personal pain and sacrifice. It provides us a chance to look at ourselves and others as part of the human family, part of one world”. The underlining word in the above definition by Leo, and Ray, is justice. This goes to say therefore that one of the stimulants of the forces that characterize the absence of peace is injustice.

It is no longer uncommon knowledge within development circle that there cannot be sustainable development without peace and security, and without development and poverty eradication there will be no sustainable peace (Hans, 2001). In clearer terms, sustainable development as defined by Akintoye, & Opeyemi, (2014 p. 33-46), is “development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising future generations to meet their own needs”. The point being made above is that in a bid to achieve sustainable development, peace remains a formidable instrument without which every other effort at achieving developmental goals will prove pronouncedly unproductive. In a bid to highlight the relationship between peace and development, the president of Burkina Faso, Blaise Compaoré, on the occasion of United Nations Sixty-eighth General Assembly debate (2013), emphasized that peace is required for development programmes so as to provide real responses to the uncertainty stemming from the poor global economic situation. From the call of Blaise who is one of the leaders in the African continent, one can argue that there is a strong correlation between peace and success of developmental activities in communities. This therefore means that communities need peace not just to dispel the presence of violence or conflicts or for the sake of living an unscathed life but also to give room for sustainable development.

 

Moral Literacy Education as an Imperative for Achieving Sustainable Peace and Development for Youths in Ogba Community.

From the foregoing, it is quite pertinent to look at how moral literacy education can serve as a tool for solving the youth restiveness in Ogba Community of Rivers State. Sustainable development, as has been pointed out, remains a landmark which cannot be achieved without the enthronement of peace in any society. Previous studies like Galymzhan, (2001) and Hans, (2001), have pointed to the nexus between peace and development, hence Ogba community cannot join the train of progress if the factors jeopardizing the peace of the community is not determinedly arrested.

Ogba community, as was earlier mentioned has been unsettled as a result of different forms of violence which have taken an alarming dimension in the community and many suggestions have been put forward to nip the ugly situation in the bud. For instance, a report by pulse.ng, a reliable online news outfit on the 15th of February, 2017, contained a call made to the Federal Government by a group – ONELGA Renaissance, asking the security agencies to provide adequate security in Ogba community to halt the dark activities that have fettered the land. There have  also been political solutions put forward to put an end to the sad situation staring the inhabitants of the community in the face. Most important in the list of moves made by stakeholders of the community and Rivers State at large to end the sad situation is the visit made by the state governor, Nyesom Wike on the 23rd February, 2016. The governor on that day beckoned everyone involved to sheath their swords and embrace peace. In short, there is no exhausting the number of calls that have been made to solve the restiveness ripping the life out of Ogba community but from my study of the problem, “moral literacy education” solutions have never been proffered, hence my effort to look at how moral literacy education could be deployed to tackle this cankerworm.

For some morality experts, character education is motivated by a general perception that youth restiveness are on the rise and cultural values are in decline (Darcia 2002, p 156-171). Therefore, to avoid this gruesome decline, moral literacy education needs to be reawakened in our communities, especially, in communities most hit by moral decadence and youth restiveness just like Ogba community. Hence to achieve this, there is need for conscious effort towards learning/developing skills that are needed to checkmate our actions, especially when these actions deal with the propriety or impropriety of human acts. For instance, the urge to engage in cultism, kidnapping, rape, and all other acts of violence are products of our thoughts and as such, can be positively redirected when those thoughts are consciously subjected to ethical screening. This is where the conscious teaching of moral instruction in schools comes handy more especially, in Ogba community and other communities in ONELGA.

In other words, there is no denying the fact that there exists a connection between good morals, good values and peace. This by way of extension means that a morally conscious individual stands a better chance of making better ethical choices when the situation calls for it. Going by the above therefore, developing a moral literacy programme for the youths and adult members of Ogba community who, most likely, have lived their lives without any moral/ethical knowledge becomes an imperative. This will eventually go a long way in making them have a moral compass through which they can determine the rightness or wrongness of human act.

 

Recommendations

From the discussions made so far, these recommendations were made:

  • There is every need for the Federal Ministry of Education to see to the immediate review of our school curriculum. A review in this sense must ensure the introduction of moral/ethical instructions in our primary, secondary and tertiary education levels. This means that our educational system must be made to reflect and encourage our core values so as to produce a populace that will reflect the basic norms of the society.
  • Since it has been established that the main perpetrators of the peace-shattering activities in Ogba community are the youths, sincere efforts should be made to develop adult education programmes with moral literacy as the theme for different youth groups in the community. This could be done through mass moral literacy campaign. This effort will go a long way towards setting moral standards which were hitherto eroded.
  • Similar to the above point is that the local government authorities should revive the under-utilized Omoku Civic Centre; involve seasoned Adult Educators in the development of moral literacy and vocational programmes, invite artisans, those who have functional skills to offer so as the youths and adults will learn from them.
  • A data bank of unemployed and unemployable youths in the community should be kept to arrest unemployment in the community in particular and the local government in general. Also during the period of high unemployment of youth, moral literacy should be reinforced and sustained. This move will ensure that situations, like idleness, loneliness etc., which are capable of luring youths into anti-social activities like cultism, kidnapping, and gangsterism are not given a brooding ground.
  • At the secondary and primary school levels, teachers should be made to reinforce good morals when it is exhibited by their pupil by giving them local government sponsored incentives.

 

Conclusion

Achieving sustainable peace and development in a community where morality has been utterly debased with blithe abandon is not an easy one. Even if we mount the most sophisticated security machinery in such community, it will still not heal the rot and reverse the spate of decadence stemming from the community, especially when the youths of this community are indifferent to the norms and values of their society. This is because moral/ethical discretions cannot be imbibed at gun point but through conscious impartation of skills necessary for good ethical decision making. Consequently, to reverse the negative trend which lack of peace has caused in Ogba community, this paper suggested, among other things, that since the deployment of security operatives in the community has not yielded any significant result, Moral Literacy Education Programme should be launched to remedy the situation.

 

References

Akintoye, V. A. and Opeyemi O. A. (2014). Prospects for achieving sustainable

development through the millennium development goals in Nigeria. European Journal of Sustainable Development, 3 (1), 33-46.

Anike, A. I. (2014). Education for the emotionally challenged children: a tool for wealth generation in Nigeria. International Journal of Educational Research 13 (1), 301-312.

Brimble M, Stevenson-Clarke P. (2005). Perceptions of the prevalence and seriousness of academic dishonesty in Australian Universities. Australian EducationalResearcher,32 (3),19-44. Retrieved from www.aare.edu.au/aer/online/50030b.pdf.

Darcia N. (2002). Does reading moral stories build character? Educational Psychology Review, 14 (2), p. 156-171.

Elijah, O. J. (2005). The Substance of Ethics: Scholars Press (Nig.) Limited, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, p. 3-5.

Francis, J. E. (1995). Ali-Ogba: A History of Ogba People. Fourth Dimension Publishing Co. Enugu State, p. 183-184.

Galymzhan, K. (2001). Peace and sustainable development: A two way relationship. 8th session of the United Nation Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals, New York.

Hans, M. (2012). The European External Action Service: An opportunity to reconcile development and security policies or a new battleground for inter-institutional turf wars? Council Report on the Implementation of the European Security Strategy: Providing Security in a Changing World. Ghent, Belgium. p. 625-625.

Herman, B. (2007). Moral literacy. London: Harvard University Press.

http://pulse.ng/local/buhari-group-urges-fg-to-stop-killings-in-ogba-egbema-ndoni-lga-of-rivers-id6169875.html

Imhabekhai, C.I. (2009). Management of Community Development Programmes and Projects. Benin. UNIBEN.

Best S. G. (2006). Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa, Ibadan:

Spectrum Books, p. 3-8.

Kosemani, J.M. (2002). Introduction to Education, Ibadan: Sure Foundation Print.

Leo R. S. and Ray P. Jr. (2012). The nature of peace and its implications for
peace education. Retrieved from https://www.scribd.com/document/ 97334834/Sally.

Nancy T. (2007). Conceptualizing moral literacy. Journal of Educational

                Administration, 45 (4), 365-376.

Ohwovorione P. A. (2013). Moral education in Nigerian secondary schools: A realistic approach. Delta State Polytechnic, Ogwashi -Uku. Delta State.

Oroka, O. (2005). Deregulation of Education and Citizenship Right to Education in Nigeria. A Paper presented at the Philosophy of Education Association of Nigeria

(PEAN), University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 10th–13thOctober, 2005.

United Nations, (2013). Sixty-eighth General Assembly debate. Retrieved from

https://www.un.org/press/en/2013/ga11425.doc.htm

UNESCO. Safeguarding Intangible Heritage and Sustainable Cultural Tourism: Opportunities and Challenges. Bangkok: UNESCO; 2008.

www.thenationonlineng.net/onelga-killings-how-25-victims-were-murdered-beheaded-2/

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Zdenek, B., & Schochor, D. (2007). Developing moral literacy in the classroom. Journal of Educational Administration, 45 (4), 514-53.


Volume 15, No.1 Article 3

RE-POSITIONING ADULT LITERACY EDUCATION PROGRAMME FOR EFFECTIVE SERVICE DELIVERY OF RETIREMENT EDUCATION PROGRAMMES IN NIGERIA

                                                                                             

Prof. Stella C. Nwizu1 Dr. Christian N. Olori2 Christopher A. Ugwuoke3

  1. Department of Adult Education & Extra Mural Studies, Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State

 

  1. Department of Adult Education & Extra Mural Studies, Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State

E-mail: Christian.olori@unn.edu.ng

 

  1. Department of Adult Education & Extra Mural Studies, Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State

 

Abstract                                                                                                                                        

Retirement education is an educative programme that equips retirees with awareness of self reliance. This paper therefore, attempts to rationalise the need for repositioning adult literacy education for effective service delivery of retirement education programmes in Nigeria. Conceptual clarification of adult education programme with special interest in literacy education programme was provided. An overview of retirement education programmes, its various forms, and challenges in Nigeria were further articulated. The paper concludes by advocating a review of the Universal Basic Education act to accommodate the effective integration of literacy education programme for effective service delivery of retirement education programmes.

 

Keywords: repositioning, adult education, service delivery, retirement education programmes

 

Introduction

Education in its broad sense is the entire process of socialisation by which men and women learn to adapt and conquer their environment. It is no doubt a veritable instrument for national development. This further explains why nations all over the world accorded priority to the education sector. Education is the process of developing the cognitive, affective and psychomotor faculties of individuals and groups in order to equip them with the knowledge and skills necessary to survive and make progress in the human society. According to Stan (2014), education is the act or process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally of preparing oneself or others intellectually for mature life. It is therefore the wealth of knowledge acquired by an individual after studying particular subject matters or experiencing life lessons that provide an understanding of something(Terry,2011).

Admittedly, adult education affords a sizeable population of Nigerian adults who previously dropped out of the school system the opportunity of remedying their deficiencies. This opportunity is made also made available to children as well as youth who either left school prematurely or never attended formal school. This is further acknowledged by scholars who conceived adult education as a learning activity directed at empowering both youth and adult in the society with flexibility in the mode of delivery. Suffice it to say that adult education is an important area of Nigerian educational sector that focuses on the provision of functional education to youths and adults both in the formal school system and outside the formal school system in the country (Lucky, 2012). The universally acceptable definition of adult education as the entire body of organised educational processes, whatever the content, level and method, whether formal or otherwise, whether they prolong or replace initial education in schools, colleges and universities as well as in apprenticeship, whereby persons regarded as adult by the society to which they belong develop their abilities, enrich their knowledge improve their technical or professional qualifications or turn them in a new direction and bring about changes in their attitudes or behaviour in twofold perspective of full personal development and participation in balanced and independent social, economic and cultural development (United Nation Education Scientific and Cultural Organisation, 2006) suggest that adult education should not be considered as an entity in itself, but an integral part of, a global scheme for life-long education and learning. The issue of repositioning adult education programme for effective service delivery of retirement education programme is very important in addressing the prevailing poverty situation amongst the retirees of Nigeria.

Retirement education programmes aimed at helping retirees in understanding their problems and taking actions in solving them. It also helps retirees to become positive thinkers and content citizens. Thus, Hendum (2011) stated that through retirement education programmes, the orderly development of retirees in their union is ensured. It can prevent or stem any crisis in industrial relation, while raising their general standard of living. This education enhances retirees skills, knowledge, techniques for high productivity upon leaving the active service. As an economic tool, Imhabekhai (2008) submitted that retirement education programme provides retirees the opportunities to acquire new skills relevant to their day-to-day operations, and also to renew outdated and irrelevant skills. With these skills, the retirees become more proficient, efficient and effective in any post-retirement economic activities they found themselves. In addition, Salmon (2010) stated that retirement education programmes aims at producing an educated, informed, professional and self reliant group of retirees whose eyes are opened and always at alert to resist any form of oppression. Thus, if retirement education programmes can achieve these benefits, then there is no doubt that it could serve as a tool for empowering retirees.

 

Problem Statement

Retirement is a phase of an individual’s life which must be planned for and anticipated with a great sense of fulfillment. The security and welfare of retiring civil servants should be a top priority of the government. Retired civil servants deserve some post-retirement benefits like life insurance, medical plans, dental care, vision care, legal services and tuition credits. However, retired civil servants in most part of the country especially Nigeria are pestered by many post-retirement challenges. These challenges ranged from sudden loss of life, loss of the usual monthly salary, anxiety about a residential home, dwindling status, decrease strength and deteriorated health condition, physical disabilities to aging. The delay in payment of pensions and gratuities has brought untold hardship and death to many retirees, thereby making retirement dreaded to workers. This problem is further compounded by inadequate planning and management of post-retirement change of conditions with many people entering into retirement without any personal plans or pre-retirement counselling. Employers of labour on their part are naïve over this issue as they desist from enlightening employees on the need to plan for retirement. Thus, many employees enter into retirement unplanned. These problems necessitated the need for repositioning adult literacy education programme for effective service delivery of retirement education programmes in Enugu State, Nigeria.

 

Adult Education Programme

Adult education programme to a lay person refers to any form of learning undertaken by or provided for mature men and women outside the formal schooling system. The main targets are specifically defined as youth (girls and boys over 15 years of age, but sometime younger) as well as women and men, generally poor or socially disadvantaged. Although literacy continues to be at its heart, adult education also includes “numeracy”, problem-solving and life skills, and other knowledge (Romeo, 2011). The notion of adult education is often used interchangeably with other notions such as literacy, adult basic education, lifelong learning, continuing education, adult non formal education. Within the context of this paper, adult education is understood as the transmission process of general, technical or vocational knowledge, as well skills, values and attitudes, which takes place out of the formal education system with a view to remedying early education inadequacies of mature people or equipping them with the knowledge required for their self-fulfillment and active participation in the social, economic and political life of their societies. With various programmes associated with adult education, adult literacy education programme was conceived as an indispensable tool for the development of skills, knowledge and attitudes for the daily survival of human persons (Olori, 2015). This implies that the benefit of adult literacy education is not limited to training for employment, provision of education for people in employment, or workers education but to enable people become abreast with recent technological changes and research findings. This will ultimately enhance the efficiency, productivity and effective service delivery of such people in their various workplaces in the contemporary society. Thus, the Federal Republic of Nigeria (2014) outlined the goals of Mass Literacy, Adult and Non-formal education as follows to:

  1. provide functional literacy and continuing education for adults and youths who have never had the advantage of formal education or who did not complete their primary education.

 

  1. provide functional and remedial education for those young people who did not complete secondary education.

 

  • provide education for different categories of completers of the formal education system in order to improve their basic knowledge and skills.

 

  1. iv. provide in-service, on-the-job, vocational and professional training for different categories of workers and professionals in order to improve their skills and,

 

  1. to give the adult citizens of the country necessary aesthetic, cultural and civic education for public enlightenment.

 

Similarly, service delivery is a component of business/organisation that defines the interaction between providers and clients where the provider offers a service, whether that be information or a task, and the client either finds value or loses value as a result (Vena, 2007). Good service delivery provides clients with an increase in value. Service delivery can be found in many different institutions, professions and company structures, such as academic institutions, medical hospitals, IT companies and so on.

 

Retirement Education Programmes

Retirement education programmes are educational programmes, advocacy and edification offered to help employees make a smooth transition to retirement. These programmes provide retirees with the tools they need to sustain themselves. Thus, helping retirees to understand their problems and taking actions in solving them. In line with this, Elvis (2011) disclosed that through retirement education programmes, the orderly development of retirees in their union is ensured.

There are many forms of retirement education programmes practiced by people in different parts of the world. Marshal (2013) identified three of such programmes as family life education, entrepreneurship education and cooperative education. Marshal (2013) stated that family life education (FLE) is any effort to strengthen family life through education or support, and can include anything from teaching about relationships in schools to providing a parent’s day out. In addition, Oniye (2010) stated that family life education is a form of community education, both preventive and developmental in nature, intended to educate the public on the importance of family life and how it can be sustained. This education is basically concerned with inculcating the proper skills to individual on effective relationship and sustaining of such relationship at the family level.

Entrepreneurship education on the other hand, which is another form of retirement programme as indicated by Marshal is aimed at providing retirees with the knowledge, skills and motivation to encourage entrepreneurial success in a variety of settings. Variations of entrepreneurship education are offered at all levels of schooling from primary or secondary schools through graduate university programmes (European Union Commission, 2011). This education encourages creativity and innovativeness so as to achieve success in business pursuit.

Cooperative education is another form of retirement education. Lemony (2011) defined cooperative education (or co-operative education) as a structured method of combining classroom-based education with practical work experience. A cooperative education experience, commonly known as a “co-op”, provides academic credit for structured job experience. It is worthy of note to state that cooperative education is taking on new importance in helping young people to make the school-to-work transition, service learning, and experiential learning initiatives (Salmon, 2010). Cooperative education is also the use of active participation methods in which retirees learn how to work together to solve problems. This is normally founded on the principles of retirees’s rights, equality, equity and participation in decision-making (Lemony, 2011). Its methods include game playing, expressing opinions, democratic participation, sharing, ensuring equal opportunity to students to participate and, in conflict resolution.

 

Challenges of Retirement Education Programmes

 

Inadequate funds: The fund used in establishing and running retirement education programme seems to be grossly inadequate. Kanad (2013) rightly observed that lack of proper funding is the bane of retirement education programme.

 

Lack of sensitisation of retirement education: Many retirees do not likely have access to retirement education programme. Many interested retirees seem not to be aware of the existence of the retirement education programme centres and even the programmes they are supposed to enroll.

 

Inadequate personnel: There seems to be an inadequate number of instructors or personnel in the teaching of retirement education programme (Olori, 2015). There seems to be dearth of skilled manpower in the area of monitoring and evaluation in retirement education programme.

 

Poor record keeping:  There seems to be a problem of record keeping in retirement education programme. This may have seriously affected the database needed for adequate planning and implementation of retirement education programme.

 

Poor attitude of retirees to retirement education:  Retirees tend to exhibit poor attitude towards retirement education programme as most of them have not really embraced the programme.

 

Poor mobilisation: There seems to be no proper mobilisation of retirees to come and embrace retirees education programmes so as to achieve the desired results.

 

 

 

Repositioning Adult Education can for Effective Service Delivery of Retirement Education

Adult education can be repositioned for effective service delivery of retirement education programmes in Nigeria through restructuring of its programmes in the following ways: using language of environment, making it learner-centered, readily accessible, community-based, respect for cultural diversity, coordinated and integrated.

 

Language of Environment

                The use of language environment as a medium of instruction in adult literacy education programmes for teaching retirement education programmes will go a long way in carrying retirees along in any village, community or town where the programme is taking place. Language of environment (L.E) according to Afe (2002) refers to any indigenous language to Nigeria that is naturally learnt by members of a speech community and employed by them as their first medium of vocalised communication. In line with this, Araromi (2005) stated that language of environment simply means the language child’s family unit used at home as the language spoken around the child’s place of origin. Language of environment can also be seen as ones’ native language. Hence, the use of language of environment is a welcome development as retirees, whether literate or not can easily fit and benefit from the programme without any form of language barrier.

 

Learner- Centred

Learner-centred adult education programmes and services make the needs, interests, abilities, and goals of clientele participating in basic education a priority. The service providers recognise different learning styles and preferences and respond with relevant and appropriate assessment, instruction, and evaluation. The learners are partners in the planning and decision-making. Learner-centred adult education programmes also recognise and value learners’ prior knowledge and experience, and support their personal growth.

 

Readily Accessible

Adult education programmes and services should be broadly available for people that need retirement education programmes. They support lifelong learning and recognise that retirees enter and re-enter learning environments based on individual needs and goals. Adult education activities are most effective when supported by a diverse network of community and institutionally-based literacy providers. Dennis (2002) stated that this network provides flexible learning opportunities in support of a full range of learner needs. All programmes are encouraged to reflect, in an equitable way, a diverse society, inclusive of both genders and people with disabilities. Adult Education programmes have structures, approaches, methods and materials in place to make sure learners receive what they need in order to achieve results at the same level as other learners of similar ability and in other target groups.

 

Community-Based

In a bid to ensure an effective service delivery of retirement education programmes, adult education programmes should be responsive to the unique needs and conditions of each community and to individual and community development. Adult education programmes should also support community involvement and ownership in planning and delivery. Equally, the community has responsibility to support programmes and learners. Service providers value community members as experts and involve them as resource personnel. Service providers also recognise that community-based programme delivery increases access and individual success.

 

Respect for Cultural Diversity

Adult education programmes are to promote cultural diversity in the course of retirement education programmes. Service providers are to encourage staffing in programmes to reflect the cultural diversity of the communities. They should recognise the importance of cultural literacy to the survival, development, and empowerment of language communities. This will further recognise the right of any tribe or ethnic group to literacy education in the official languages.

 

Coordinated and Integrated

Meeting the needs of the many adult learners who lack formal education requires shared responsibility, resources and cooperation between agencies, employers, government and community organisations in order to deliver quality programmes (Thelma, 2009). Adult education programmes are bridging initiatives that promote readiness for further education and transferability between other adult basic education programmes. These programmes require partnerships among communities, organisations and institutions. The identification of needs as well as the development, delivery and evaluation of adult education programmes are shared responsibilities involving learners, government, post-secondary institutions, divisional education authorities, community-based organisations, aboriginal management boards, employers and employees.

 

Conclusion

Adult education is a practice in which adults engage in systematic and sustained learning activities beyond the traditional schooling in order to gain new forms of knowledge, skills, attitudes, or values. This education reflects on a specific philosophy about learning and teaching based on the assumption that adults can and want to learn. Ageing and retirement are irrevocable occurrences in the life of individual employees whether in the public or private sector. Retirement education programmes are educational activities directed at providing or updating new skills to retirees for effective and active participation in their day-to-day operations. These skills are acquired through repositioning adult education programmes.

 

Way Forward

                The following suggestions are made as way forward towards ensuring the repositioning of adult education programmes for effective service delivery of retirement education programmes:

  1. The Universal Basic Education act should be reviewed by providing a section on the place of adult education to further trigger the effective service delivery of retirement education programme in Nigeria.

 

  1. Establishing more adult education centres in the various states of the federation for easy access to everybody especially interesting adult.

 

  1. Providers of various programmes in adult education should be designed to be free and based on learners’ needs and aspirations.

 

  1. Upward review of Facilitators’ remuneration (allowance): payment of facilitators should be in accordance with the minimum benchmark as set by the Non-Formal Education blue print that facilitators should be paid minimum wage as their remuneration or allowances.

 

  1. Recruitment of adequate and qualified facilitators: persons with Nigeria Certificate in Education and specialisation in adult education should be employed as facilitators in the non-formal education centres.

 

 

  1. There should be intensified and sustained advocacy, sensitisation and mobilisation of all stakeholders involved in the promotion of adult education in Nigeria.

 

  1. Employment of adequate number of staff at all levels to meet the ever increasing demand of adult education in the country should be made by the government through the various state agencies of adult and non-formal education.

 

 

 

 

 

References

Afe, H. (2002). Towards satisfactory retirement: A socio-psychological approach. Lagos Nigeria: Kola Okanlawon Services Ltd.

Araromi, H. (2005). Language of environment and its influence on humanity. Ilorin: Femi Best Press.

Aruma, G. (2011). Fundamentals of adult learning in the new millennium. Cambo District: Zena Press.

Barry, N.H.(2004). Influence of education on mankind. Brisbane city: Goonock Press.

Dennis, J. T.(2002). The role of adult education in community development. Bastern: Locony Publishers.

Dewey, J.(2004). Democracy and education. London: The Free Press.

Elvis, G.U. (2011). Social security and retirement around the world. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

European Union Commission (2011). Entrepreneurship education in the New Millennium”, Entrepreneurship Education Experience, Columbia, MD: Retirement Education Association, pp. 1–5.

Federal Republic of Nigeria (2014). National policy on education. Lagos: NERDC Press

Hendum, E.E. (2011). Indigenous education: Addressing current issues and developments. Comparative education, 39 (2), 139–145.

Imhabekhai, C.I. (2008). Programme development and programme management in Adult and non-formal education in Nigeria. Apapa Lagos: Amfitop Books.

Kanab, H. L. (2013). The spaces between: toward a new paradigm for retirement education, Journal of retirement education, 32(2):36–45

Lemony, G.H. (2011). Community service scholarships: combining cooperative education with service learning. Journal of cooperative education, 33(1): 46–54.

Lucky, E. (2012). Adult education and human development. Nairobi: Mboke Press.

Marshal, G. (2013). Health problems as determinants of retirement: Are self-rated measures endogenous? Journal of health economics, 18( 2): 173–193

Olori, C.N. (2015). Basics of literacy education: Nigerian perspective. Port Harcourt: Harey Publications Coy.

Oniye, A. O.(2001), Problem associated with retirement and implications for Productive Adult Life . Nigerian Journal of Gender and Development, 5(2): 22-34.

Romeo, M. (2011). Education for the old and less privileged. Hachem: Damon Press.

Salmon, E.B. (2010). The cooperative education movement: Association of Cooperative Colleges. Journal of cooperative education, 8(5): 24–27

Stan, G. (2014). Concept of education. Olive Town: Remac Press.

Spencer, B. (2006). The purposes of adult education: a short introduction (2nd ed.).Toronto: Thompson Educational Publication.

Terry K. (2011). Education as wealth of knowledge for man. Atlanta: Cannon Press.

Thelma, F. C. (2009). Philosophical base of adult education: a new perspective. Leicester: Adams Press.

Vena, H.O. (2007). Promoting better service delivery in a business organisation. Texas: Thanack Press.

 UNESCO (2006). Recommendation on the development of adult education. New York City: UNESCO Press.


Volume 15, No.1 Article 2

TOWARDS EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: LESSONS FROM RE-ENGINEERING OF EDUCATION IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA

 

Prof. Kate Azuka Omenugha

 

Abstract

Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) has been widely explained over the decades. The argument has been that the survival of nations depends on functional education that will lead to sustainability in all ramifications; economic, political, technological, social, etc. Functional education is the key to achieving sustainable national development. Yet the Nigerian society is bewildered with challenges in the education system, making sustainable development a mirage. Hinged on the necessity for substantial change in the way we think about the role of education in global development and its catalytic impact on the well-being of individuals and the future of our nation, this article evaluates the effort of Anambra State government on the re-engineering of education, fashioned towards ensuring sustainable development in the state. The article submits that the functional education system in the state qualifies to be a fundamental template for ideal education for sustainable development properly called for in the nation and the world at large.

 

Keywords: Education for Sustainable Development, Education for Employment (E4E), Chief Willie Obiano, Value based education, Anambra State.

 

Introduction

Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) has become an important issue in society for the past three decades. The United Nations Decade for ESD[1] has emphasized innovative approaches in education fashioned to enable contributing to the societal transition towards sustainability through both the formal education system and non-formal and informal learning settings.[2] Sustainability is thus a paradigm for thinking about a future in which environmental, social and economic considerations are balanced in the pursuit of development and an improved quality of life. These three spheres – society, environment and economy – are intertwined. It is pertinent to ask; what is Education for Sustainable development and how has the education sector in Anambra state keyed into the vision of the United Nations Decade for ESD?

 

Understanding Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)

The definition of sustainable development that continues to enjoy wide currency was famously defined in the Brundtland Commission report, Our Common Future as ‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.’[3] It is generally depicted as a process of maintaining a dynamic balance between three interrelated ‘pillars,’ or ‘dimensions’, i.e. economy, environment and society as the development process is taken forward, with the aim of staying within the constraints imposed by the ‘carrying capacity’ of the planet.[4] Munasinghe (2004) aptly defines sustainable national development as a process of improving the range of opportunities that will enable individual humans and communities to achieve their aspirations and full potential over a sustained period of time while maintaining the resilience of economic, social and environmental systems.[5]

Age (2005) identified some objectives which sustainable national development is expected to realize: increase capital income and employment, promoting human welfare, satisfying basic needs; protecting the environment.[6]

Education for sustainable development (ESD) was declared to be an ‘enabler for sustainable development’ with the potential to ‘empower learners to transform themselves and the society they live in’ (UNESCO, 2014a). The Global Action Programme on Education for Sustainable Development, designed to provide the roadmap for the post-2015 ESD agenda and launched at the conference, rehearses the core learning content, approaches and competencies of ESD: [7].

  1. It involves developing in the learner the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes enabling informed decision making and responsible action for environmental integrity, economic viability and the just society in the present and with an eye to the future;
  2. It entails the use of participatory learning and teaching methods that motivate and empower learners;
  3. It is fundamentally a rights-based approach;
  4. It relates to the environmental, social and economic pillars of sustainable development in an integrated, balanced and holistic way, comprehensively embracing, inter alia, poverty reduction, climate change, disaster risk reduction, biodiversity and sustainable consumption and production;
  5. It encompasses but does not seek to usurp historical and/or current ‘adjectival’ educations such as environmental education, global education and development education.[8]

 

However, it is important to note that meaning of education for sustainable development differs from country to country, region to region. It develops in ways that are locally relevant and it thrives on the five pillars that provide quality education and fosters human development namely; learning to know, learning to do, learning to live together, learning to be, learning to transform oneself and learning to transform society.

Education for sustainable development thrives on values and by so doing rest upon creating locally relevant and appropriate values. Values shape many things within the society (world views, how we treat others, how we view ourselves, our expectation of government, our use and abuse of natural resources, etc)

 

Country Meaning of ESD

Chile

In Chile, ESD is seen as a fundamental part of citizenship education, an opportunity to satisfy human needs through a pedagogy that fosters the cultural transformation towards a sustainable society and which permits education to re-think itself and to work in favour of the democratization of knowledge. It is seen as the collective construction of an ethic of human action which promotes the development of participatory and supportive educational communities.

 

Botswana

For Botswana, ESD is education that places emphasis on equipping learners and the public with skills that will sustain them in future. It involves the acquisition of knowledge, skills, right attitudes and values in such a way that learners will be able to use their environment productively and in a sustainable manner so as to improve the quality of their life and to become productive members of their society.

China

In accordance with common scientific understandings, ESD in China is viewed as a kind of education that develops values that support sustainable development, with the intention to help people learn relevant knowledge and values and to develop the right and healthy habits and lifestyle which will lead to sustainable development for the whole society (adapted from Asia-Pacific regional report).

 

Arab Region

In the Arab region, ESD contributes to “the acquisition and practice of knowledge, values and skills that ensure balance between the economic, social and environmental aspects of development and the observance of both individuals and society development and progress in life”.[9]

 

What is Education for Sustainable Development in Nigerian Context?

No doubt education constitutes the major instrument for sustainable human development and fulcrum around which every other activity revolves.[10] Nation which has recorded tremendous feats in the world heavily relied on the instrumentality of education.

However, in Nigeria there seems to be a daily decline of educational standards.[11] Although according to the former president Olusegun Obasanjo in his Presidential Speech on April, 24, 2000 in Dakar Senegal, he attributed the educational falling standard to bad governance. In his speech; he stated that: Nigerian educational system as it stands is a living proof of the damages that bad governance can do to our society and social structure.[12] While this is arguably true, many scholars such as Tahir (2001), Boyi (2013), Age (2005)  also think that failing education standard in Nigeria is as a result of dysfunctional type of education. Nigeria’s emphasis on certificate rather than empowerment continues to hype unemployment. Below are the challenges of education in Nigeria.

 

Education in Nigeria: What are the issues?

  1. Challenged /dysfunctional education system
  2. Craze for non-existent White collar jobs
  3. Disdain for people who “use their hands”
  4. Decline in creativity and enterprise
  5. Low self confidence and self esteem
  6. Acute shortage of infrastructure and facilities
  7. Access to basic education hindered by gender issues and socio-cultural beliefs and practices
  8. Theory at the expense of technical/vocational and entrepreneurship
  9. Ethical issues – examination malpractices, etc
  10. Unqualified teaching force

 

Transforming Education for Sustainability in Nigeria

In order to ensure a reasonable transformation of education for sustainable development in Nigeria, there is need to ensure the following;

  1. The desire to attain education for all (EFA)
  2. The sustainable development goals (SDGs); the goal number 4 on quality education is very instructive.
  3. Value re-orientation
  4. Poverty eradication
  5. Wealth generation and job creation, and
  6. Empowering people through education

 

How has Anambra State worked so far towards transforming education through the ESD?

When Chief Dr. Willie Obiano took over as the Executive Governor of Anambra State, he developed a vision for the state expressed through the Anambra Wheel of Development. This vision is anchored by the 4 pillars namely: Agriculture, Oil and Gas, Trade and Commerce and Industrialization.

To support this vision is the education which the Governor has (together with others such as healthcare) termed an “Enabler”- An enabler is an energizer, a propeller, an activator where the strength of the enabler, determines the strength of the pillars. Thus a strong education is needed to make the four pillars solid.

Education is the key to achieving the vision of the Dr. Willie Obiano’s administration which seeks to make Anambra State the first choice investment destination and most preferred location to site new industries. The State Ministry of Education (SMoE) has developed the Broad Strategic Objectives to support this vision focusing on producing human resource capital to sustain the 4 pillars.

 

Pillar 1: Agriculture:

The education system seeks to inculcate vocational skills in our students through vocational education whereby agriculture is seen as big business, creating employment and feeding the nation.

Pillar 2: Oil and Gas:

The aim of education here is to deepen and broaden the participation of private sector partnership in education in order to sustain the integration of knowledge development into industry and other segments of the market and support Government financing needs.

 

Pillar 3: Industrialization:

Here, education is channeled to ensure efficient management in terms of a comprehensive, well diversified and sustainable resource system of infrastructure, supportive of Government and private sector needs.

 

Pillar 4: Commerce and Industry:

Continuity in the enhancement of technical skills of our students in technical colleges benchmarking of international standards, linking with private sectors, professional bodies and international institution for improved professional workforce and self-employment. Anambra state becomes poised to be a major destination for out-sourced education systems management skills and services.

These strategic objectives are driven by His Excellency’s blueprint on education. Gov. Obiano has declared in his blueprint, the following Strategic objective:

The government will ensure that the learning needs of all are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life-skills programmes and be one of the top 3 states with lowest illiteracy rate in Nigeria.[13]

 

To achieve this, education in the state thus comes in full package, approached from three-pronged areas – Infrastructure, pupils/students development, and teacher improvement. And these are summed up in the Anambra state story of re-engineering education.

 

Anambra State Story of Re-engineering Education

The Anambra state story of re-engineering education comes in the following categories;

  1. Curriculum – Education for Employment (E4E)
  2. Revamping technical colleges
  3. Private sector engagement
  4. Teachers’ development
  5. Policies
  6. Value based education
  7. ICT drives
  8. Girl child education

 

Curriculum – Education for Employment (E4E)

Nigeria realizes the need for trade subjects and has thus in 2012 restructured curriculum to encompass many trade/entrepreneurship subjects. Anambra State is among the first states to drive the entrepreneurship subjects. What is currently running in the state is what is called Education for Employment (E4E). This is the type of education whereby a bridge is created between the schools and the industries and private sectors. Students are made to have hands-on experiences from the local industries and artisans. This is a functional education where students develop various skills that will enhance their employability. A situation where students are given education that makes them employers rather than the employees of labour is to be coveted.

The Immigration Service recruitment saga of 2014 is still fresh in our minds where mayhem was let loose as millions of applicants applied for the advertised 4000 job slots, leading to huge loss of lives.

Figure 2

Figure 2


Revamping Technical Colleges

It is in Technical and Vocational Education (TVET) that the Willie Obiano administration is making its mark in the footprints of time. At inception, the 11 technical colleges in the state were at their lowest ebb where none had accreditation. Our Technical and Vocational Colleges now offer a great opportunity to produce fit-for-purpose, indigenous human resources that will enable our focus on Agriculture, Oil & Gas, Trade & Commerce and Industrialization (The 4 Pillars) to yield the desired outcomes that will improve the quality of life of the local populace.

 

  1. Free tuition for students in NTC 1 – 3 to tackle the low intake of students at NTC 1 and high attrition rate in the final year (NTC 3).
  2. Bridge programme to tackle the disconnection between the Colleges and the local Industries.
  • Teachers Industrial work experience scheme (TIWES) is now readily in place. Teachers of technical colleges are being retrained to produce the best of students. In 2014, twenty-three (23) of such teachers were taken on study tour to Singapore to learn the Singaporean model of technical and vocational education.

 

The production units of the technical colleges have been resuscitated as students now produce items that are marketable. Anambra State held the first ever Trade/Entrepreneurship fair for secondary schools where students display their skills and products in cosmetology, fisheries, snail rearing, etc.

The result of all these is the increase in enrolment in the technical colleges and vocational subjects. (See Figure 3 below)

Moreover, the long overdue accreditation of the trade subjects by the National Board of Technical Education (NBTE) is effected. As at date, over 30 trade subjects have full accreditation by the NBTE across the technical colleges in the state. Meanwhile the number of technical colleges has risen to twelve (12).

 

Figure 3

 

Private Sector Engagement – The Bridge Programme

Anambra state has strategically positioned education for sustainability through the continuous collaboration/liaison between the schools and the private sector. Establishment of a partnership in 2014 between Innoson Vehicle Manufacturing Company Nnewi, Federal Polytechnic, Oko and the Technical and Vocational Colleges kick started the partnership as one of the core measures made by the government to ensure education for sustainable development in the state. This led to the floating of Vehicle Body Building Work course in Nigerian Science and Technical College, Nnewi, which has since been accredited by NBTE. Since then, over 15 memoranda of understanding (MOUs) have been signed between the schools and hospitality industries, mechanical industries and construction industries. Each of these partnerships has been activated, leading to training and retraining of staff, students and the private sector employees.

 

 

Figure 4

 Hidden

 

Students of technical colleges working at Innoson factory at Nnewi

Figure 5    Hidden                                                                                     

Figure 6     Hidden                                          

Re-Engaging Identity and Value Orientation

For the Obiano led administration, introducing value based education for effective re-orientation is imperative in Anambra State.  As can be seen in other countries earlier discussed, ESD thrives on values, skills and re-orientation. Ten (10) point shared values and inspiring State Anthem popularised in both private and public schools for children have continually been a moral and patriotic measure for sound upbringing. The ten (10) share values are noted below;

 

Our shared Values

  1. To make a positive impact on everyone I meet and everywhere I  go;
  2. To be a solution provider and not a part of the problem to be solved;
  3. To be a role model worthy of emulation;
  4. To be the best in all I do; particularly the things I am naturally good at
  5. To do the right things at all times regardless of who is doing the wrong thing;
  6. To value time and make the best use of it;
  7. To care and show respect through their words and actions;
  8. To consciously build great legacy starting now, today and everyday
  9. To live a life of integrity and honour
  10. To make my family, my state, my nation and my God proud.

 

Anambra Education Anthem

Also popularized is the Anambra Education Anthem that reads in part;

…In unison therefore we say:

Hard work is a great legacy

Diligence a coveted virtue

Our shared values we must embrace Cleanliness is next to godliness

Together we say NO to cultism, NO to drug and Exam malpractice,

NO to Miracle centres and   indiscipline (twice)

 

The emphasis here is the eschewing of all forms of vices that impinge on the creativity and confidence of the students. As seen in other countries of the world such as China, Botswana, Arab region, etc, values rank high in any sustainable development. Reorienting the minds of our children towards the right values is a strategy adopted by the Anambra education system towards sustainability in education. This has yielded good results as WAEC ranked Anambra State as one of the states where from 2014; examination malpractice has consistently been on the decline. Anambra State was named by WAEC as one of the eight (8) states (Anambra, Bayelsa, Delta, Enugu, Kebbi, Plateau, Yobe, Zamfara) that recorded consistent decrease in the level of malpractice during the period considered (2014 -2016). Anambra State equally received in November 2016 a letter of commendation from WAEC for credible conduct of WAEC Examination in the state.

 

ICT Drives

In the words of Arne Duncan;

In the 21st century, students must be fully engaged. This requires the use of technology tools and resources, involvement with interesting and relevant projects, and learning environments—including online environments—that are supportive and safe.   … In the 21st century, educators must be given and be prepared to use technology tools; they must be collaborators in learning—constantly seeking knowledge and acquiring new skills along with their students.”[14]

 

Gov. Obiano has entrenched basic ICT into all programs at all levels and curricula, achieving computer for every teacher in 2015 (one teacher, one laptop) and hopefully hand-held devices for students by 2018.

The emphasis on ICT draws us to some policy thrusts. For example, for a teacher to head the school as a head teacher or principal, he or she must be ICT compliant and would show competence in ICT examination.

 

 

 

Figure 7: Hon Commissioner for Education at an ICT training session for Teachers

The resultant effect of the ICT drive is that at present, over 45% of the Anambra State teachers are Microsoft certified.

 

 

Figure 8: Professional Development Exams taken by Anambra Teachers

Lessons and Implications for Faculties of Education

Having outlined the efforts of Anambra State towards ensuring education for sustainable development, what are the observations and lessons from the State’s re-engineering of education? What implication do they have for the faculties of education?

  1. Human capital is the key for sustainable development

Human capital and manpower is very essential towards ensuring sustainable development in education. While education meets the needs of the present, it does not compromise the ability of the future generations to meet own needs. This ability to meet these needs is determined by human capital.

  1. Dearth of teachers in the trade subjects and technical subjects

It is a well known fact that no educational system in a nation can rise above the quality of its teachers. In other words, the success of the system rests on the availability of good and qualified teachers who are internally motivated. Teachers are the way to improvement since they are the final brokers when it comes to educational policy. There is need to float more trade subjects in our faculty of education, to meet the demands in our secondary schools.

  1. Enterprise is a huge challenge for teachers

Enterprising teachers contribute to sustainable development. The enterprising attributes therefore must include creativity, initiative taking, analytical ability, high autonomy, achievement motivation and financial literacy. Education must be able to pay its way through productive units.

  1. Many of the teachers lack the new sets of required skills

The world is evolving and there are new innovations every now and then. Most teachers lack adequate skills required to keep updated to the latest trends in teaching and instructing. A good example of this is the use of Information and communication technologies (ICT). A teacher’s deficiency in the area of ICT in this modern world is almost a complete emptiness. Faculties of education must make ICT compulsory for the trainee teachers.

  1. The challenge of training existing teachers is worse than that of recruiting and training new teachers

Training of new teachers is easily done. This is because there are stipulated requirements on the kind of teachers and their fields needed for consideration for employment. This makes it easier when there is further need to train them to key into such field. This is not the same with existing teachers where many of them are already accustomed to a one-way operation. It is a great challenge changing such one-way to diversified ways through training. It is thus imperative that would-be teachers are imbued with the modern skills when in schools than when they are out of it.

 

 

  1. Sustainable development is achievable with public private partnership.

Creating partnership between the business community and the education community is best for the training of young people. This is because development itself is a process of societal advancement, where improvement in the well being of people are generated through strong partnerships between all sectors, corporate bodies and other groups in the society.

  1. Addressing ethical challenges is key to sustainable development

Education brings about the moral development and spiritual uplifting of the human personality and of the community as a whole. Ethical, moral and civic values are needed for laying a solid foundation for life-long learning. It is thus important to address ethical challenges in education so as to ensure sustainable development. Professional ethics and values must run throughout the duration of training of would-be teachers. Any hopeful teacher found to be engaged in any form of sharp practices need to be disengaged from the system.

 

Conclusion

Functional Education is no doubt the cornerstone to achieving the needed sustainable development of any nation. Achieving sustainable national development is the goal of all developing nations. Nigeria is not an exception. In as much as sustainable development cannot be achieved by mere technological solutions, political regulation or financial instruments alone, there is thus a need to invest, encourage and enlighten people on education, ensuring re-orientation, awareness and mind-regeneration of people’s psyche on education to enable progressive change in the way we think and act. The role of government at all levels to facilitate the achievement of any development is also paramount. The Anambra State government has set a leading mark in this dimension as an adoptable measure towards achieving this sustainable development. This the government has done through the Ministry of Education – changing the psyche of the children, insisting on value-based education; training and retraining of teachers, public – private partnership, education for employment (E4E); etc. However, the need for monitoring, supervising and ensuring that all the financial and other investment on education for the purpose of achieving sustainable development need to be sustained. .

 

References

Abubakar Aminu Boyi (2013), Education and Sustainable National Development in Nigeria: Challenges and Way Forward, Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy

Age, E. (2005), Objectives of Teaching Education in Nigeria, London, British Council

Buckler, C. and Creech, H. (2014), Shaping the future we want: UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development; final report. UNESCO

Munasinghe, S. (2004), Effective Instructions Through Dynamic Discipline. Ohio, Charles E. Merill

Obasanjo O. (2000), A Speech in Dakar, Senegal. Farfaru Journal Vol. I. June, 2006.

Tahir, G. (2001) Federal Government Intervention in U.B. E. form 1(1) 1-12 Kaduna, Nigeria

UNESCO (2008), Regional Guiding Framework of ESD for the Arab Region, Beirut

UNESCO (2013), Proposal for a Global Action Programme on Education for Sustainable Development as follow-up to the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) after 2014. UNESCO General Conference, 37th Session, Paris, 4 November 2013. Available online at: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/unesco-world-conference-on-esd-2014/esdafter-2014/global-action-programme/

UNESCO. (2014a), Aichi-Nagoya Declaration on Education for Sustainable Development. Retrieved 19/01/2018 from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/ images/0023/002310/231074e.pdf

UNESCO. (2014b), Roadmap for implementing the Global Action Programme on Education for Sustainable Development, Paris: UNESCO, Retrieved 3. 9. 2016 from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002305/230514e.pdf

World Commission on Environment and Development (1987), Our common future, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[1] UNESCO (2013). Proposal for a Global Action Programme on Education for Sustainable Development as follow-up to the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) after 2014. UNESCO General Conference, 37th Session, Paris, 4November 2013.Available online at:http://www.unesco.org/new/en / unesco-world-conference-on-esd-2014/esdafter-2014/global-action-programme/

[2] Buckler, C. and Creech, H. (2014). Shaping the future we want: UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development; final report. UNESCO

[3] World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987). Our common future. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 43

[4] World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987), Our common future. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 43

[5] Munasinghe, S. (2004), Effective Instructions Through Dynamic Discipline. Ohio, Charles E. Merill

[6] Age, E.(2005). Objectives of Teaching Education In Nigeria. London, British Council, p.85

[7] UNESCO. (2014a). Aichi-Nagoya Declaration on Education for Sustainable Development. Retrieved 19/01/2018 from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002310/231074e.pdf.

[8] UNESCO. (2014b), Roadmap for implementing the Global Action Programme on Education for Sustainable Development, Paris: UNESCO, Retrieved 19/01/2018 from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002305/230514e.pdf, p.33

[9]  UNESCO (2008), Beirut, Regional Guiding Framework of ESD for the Arab Region,

[10] Tahir, G. (2001) Federal Government Intervention in U.B. E. form 1(1) 1-12 Kaduna, Nigeria, p. 21

[11] Abubakar Aminu Boyi (2013), Education and Sustainable National Development in Nigeria: Challenges and Way Forward, Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy, p. 149

[12] Obasanjo O. (2000). A Speech in Dakar, Senegal. Farfaru Journal Vol. I. June, 2006.

[13] Gov. Obiano’s blueprint declaration on education through the Strategic objective

[14] A quote from Arne Duncan’s speech on March 3, 2010, Arne Duncan was the U.S. Secretary of Education.